Friday, June 7, 2019
What is Nutrition Essay Example for Free
What is Nutrition EssayOBJECTIVES1. Identify and discuss factors that affect food choices. (Course objective 1) 2. Define regimen, solid foods, inwrought nutrients, non essential nutrients, kilocalorie 3. Identify the half dozen classes of nutrients utilized by humans and describe their basic functions in the tree trunk. (Course Objective 4) 4. Describe the steps of the scientific method.5. Describe the side by side(p) comp wiznts of look for studies experimental convocation, control gathering, placebo, double-blind placebo-controlled depicted object 6. Discuss the types of research studies and methods used to acquire valid nutrition information. (Course objective 2) 7. Differentiate between reputable and non-reputable sources of nutrition information. 8. Differentiate between the various methods used to measure the nutrient status of case-by-cases and population groups. Discuss the pros and consTEACH YOURSELF THE BASICSWhat Drives Our aliment Choices?1. Identify at least(prenominal) five factors that influence our food choices. Taste,enjoyment, culture, environment, social reasons, and popular trends. 2. Discuss examples of at least three of the factors identified in question 1. Taste is considered the number one factor when it comes to choosing foods. Foods that atomic number 18 salty and sweet are among the top choices. Culture plays an important single-valued function in choosing food. Foods that are easily available to a group of the population are more likely to be eaten over foods that are rare to the location. Someone from China may have different choices than someone from Italy. hearty trends also have a role to play in choosing food. What family and friends eat and foods considered popular may be chosen over other foods, despite wellness concerns. **Make sure to read The Take-Home depicted object for this segmentation (Pg. 7)What is Nutrition?1. Explain how the focus of the oeuvre of nutrition has changed over time. Nutrition b egan a hardly a(prenominal) hundred years ago as a science relating nutrients to diseases and its affects, but today is used as a way to promote good wellness and long life by healthy eating. ** Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this element (Pg. 9)What are Nutrients?1. List the six categories of nutrients found in foods and in the clay. Carbohydrates, Lipids ( rounds), Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, and Water 2. Which nutrients provide muscularity? Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Alcohol also provides naught but is not considered a nutrient. 3. When we use the term calorie to describe the energy content of food, are we actually referring to the word calorie or are we referring to the word kilocalorie? Explain. Kilocalorie, not calorie, is the correct term when referring to the energy content of food. small calorie is a much smaller unit of measurement. 4. How many kilocalories are provided in a gram of carbohydrate? Protein? elaborates? Carbohydrates and Protei ns have 4 kilocalories and Lipids or fats have 9 kilocalories. **Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this section (Pg. 13)What Are the Primary Roles of the Individual Nutrients?1. For each of the 6 classes of nutrients, briefly describe their primary role in the body. Use the table below to guide you. largenutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats and water. Carbohydrates are the bodys Mais source of energy. Proteins provide the building blocks, or amino acids, for tissue in the body. Fats are also a source of energy but in a more concentrated form. Water makes up a majority of the fluids in the body, as well as its tissues. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins help regulate metabolism and use other nutrients, opus minerals assist in body processes.2. List some food sources for carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Carbohydrates include bread, cereals and nuts. Lipids include butter and oils. Proteins include meat and dairy. 3. Classify the vitamins according to whether they are water soluble or fat soluble. Water soluble vitamins include vitamin C and the 8 B-complex vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and vitamin K. 4. Give examples of major minerals and trace minerals.Major minerals include calcium and magnesium, while Trace minerals include iron and zinc. **Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this section (Pg. 16)What is Credible Nutrition Research?1. What are some questions you lav ask yourself to evaluate the credibility of published nutrition information (in print or on the internet)? Was the research findings published in a peer-reviewed journal? Was the study done on animals or humans? Is this the first time I have heard this? Do the study participants resemble me? 2. Describe the steps of the scientific method.Scientists observe the natural world, ask questions, and put forth or submit an explanation, called a hypothesis, bases on what they observed. Next they test this hypothesis to determine if it is correct or not. After testing or conducting an experiment, it groundwork be determined if the hypothesis is supported or not by the findings. If supported, the findings can be published. If not supported, the scientist accordingly must revise or redo the hypothesis.3. Why is a double-blind placebo-controlled study considered the gold standard of research? This study is the gold standard because all variables are the same and controlled for the groups with no bias toward any group or researcher. 4. How does sample size affect the credibility of research results? The sample sizes must be bulky enough so that any differences in the study are related to treatment and not just chance. **Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this section (Pg. 21)What Is Nutrition ratement and What Does It Involve?1. Briefly describe the different methods for assessing the nutrition status of individuals. Which one is the best method? Explain your reasoning. Anthropometric data is used to determine body size or composition. Data gathered is compared to reference standards, which can help determine risk factors for developing disease. Biochemical tests assess nutrient levels in body fluids, how fast nutrients are excreted through urine, and metabolic by products of nutrients found in urine. Clinical tests inspect the body for over or under nutrition by inspecting hair, nails and lips. Dietary intake can be measured by interviews and questionnaires to reveal lifestyle habits. The most important of the four would be anthropometric due to its ability to evaluate for disease such(prenominal) as diabetes.**Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this section (Pg. 27)How Do We Assess the Nutritional Status of a Population Group? 1. How are nutritional assessment methods for a population group different than those which would be used for an individual? For a large population national surveys are used to determine nutritional status.How Does the American Diet Stack Up?1. Summarize how the American nutriment compares to dietary recommendations. Americans eat too much protein, sugar, sodium, saturated fat and not enough fiber, some vitamins and minerals. **Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this section (Pg. 30) Whats the Best Dietary Strategy for Health?1. Is the following statement true or false A variety of whole foods will learn everyones nutritional needs and there should be no need for nutritional supplements. Explain your answer. False. Some individuals have diet restrictions or higher nutrient needs such as a pregnant woman or someone who is lactose intolerant. **Make sure to read The Take-Home Message for this section (Pg. 31)VOCABULARYNutrition The science that studies how nutrients and compounds in foods nourish the body and affect body functions and overall health. Nutrients Compounds in foods that sustain body processes. There are six classes of nutrients carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water Essential Nu trients Nutrients that must be consumed from foods because they cannot be made in the body in sufficient quantities to meet its needs and support health. Nonessential Nutrients Nutrients that can be made in sufficient quantities in the body to meet the bodys requirements and support health. Energy Yielding Nutrients The three nutrients that provide energy to the body to fuel physiological functions carbohydrates, lipids, and protein.Kilocalorie The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade used to educe the measurement of energy in foods 1 kilocalorie is equal to 1000 calories. Macronutrients Organic nutrients, including the energy-containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water that the body needs in large amounts. Micronutrient Essential nutrients the body needs in smaller amounts vitamins and minerals. Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamins that dissolve in water Generally cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed. Fat S oluble Vitamins Vitamins that dissolve in fat and can be stored in the body. Major Minerals Minerals needed by the body in amounts greater than 5 grams Aka Macro minerals.Trace Minerals Minerals needed by the body in amounts less than 5 grams Aka Micro minerals. Peer Reviewed Journal A journal in which scientists publish research findings, after the findings have gone through a rigorous review process by other scientists. Observational Research Research that involves systematically law-abiding subjects to see if there is a relationship to certain outcomes. Experimental Group In experimental research, the group of participants are given a specific treatment, such as a drug, as part of the study. Control Group in experimental research, the group that does not get the treatment but may be given a placebo instead used as a standard for comparison.Placebo An inactive substance, such as a sugar pill, administered to a control group during an experiment. Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled S tudy An experimental study in which neither the researchers nor the subjects in the study are aware who is receiving the treatment or the placebo. Nutritional Genomics A field of study of the relationship between genes, gene expression, and nutrition. Registered Dietician A health professional who is a food and nutrition expert RDs obtain a college degree in nutrition from an American Dietetic Association (ADA) accredited program, and pass an exam to become a Registered Dietician. Malnourished A condition that results when the body does not receive the right amount of essential nutrients to maintain health over nourished and undernourished are forms of malnutrition.Malabsorption A problem associated with the lack of absorption of nutrients through the enteric tract. Medical Nutrition Therapy The integration of nutrition counseling and dietary changes based on individual medical and health needs, to treat a patients medical condition. Quackery The promotion and selling of health prod ucts and services of questionable validity. Body Mass Index (BMI) A measurement calculated as prime divided by weight squared used to determine whether an individual is underweight, at a healthy weight, or overweight. Overweight For adults, having a BMI greater than 25.obesity For adults, having a BMI greater than 30.Here are a few examples of reliable nutrition and health websites. American Dietetic Association www.eatright.org Centers for Disease Control www.cdc.gov Food and Drug Administration www.fda.gov National Institutes of Health www.nih.gov U.S. Department of Agriculture www.nutrition.gov American Cancer Society www.cancer.orgFor additional resources, animations, and news stories over topics from this chapter, click on Chapter circumscribe on your Blackboard page, then click on Chapter 1.