Saturday, August 31, 2019
The study aims to conclusively evaluate how effective it is to employ a specialist community stroke team for the rehabilitation of stroke victims in a community based setting. This is clearly established at within the opening lines of the article. In the summary at the beginning of the article the author claims that the available evidence is inconclusive and his aim is to provide conclusive proof with regards to evidence based practise for the patient. A research article should state itsÃ¢â¬â¢ aims clearly and should assume the audience has no previous background knowledge (Greenhalg, 2006). The literature reviewed in this article was from a variety of sources such as the Cochrane database and a selection of journal articles. On this basis the authors were able to deduce that previous research carried out provided contradicting reports. For example Roderick et al (2001) as cited by Lincoln et al (2004) found no significant difference in the effectiveness of rehabilitation which had taken place in the home to that which had occurred in a hospital setting. On the contrary Gladman et al (1993) as cited by Lincoln et al (2004) found a significant difference in a small group of younger patients. It was also suggested that there was a shift of focus from mainly hospital based rehabilitation to community based rehabilitation of stroke patients. According to Polger and Thomas (2008) a literature review should provide appropriate background information. That is, it should show the current knowledge level in that area of study. The author appears to have utilised much of his own previous work in the study and some are more than ten years old. This could possibly be an indication that indeed, there is a large gap in knowledge of this subject area. On the other hand it may indicate that the author has done a selective search of the literature. A quantitative approach was utilised in this study and the method used was a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT). The articlesÃ¢â¬â¢ methodology was well documented. According to Sim and Wright (2000) an analytic study attempts to quantify the relationship between two factors, that is, the effect of an intervention or exposure on an outcome. A term used to describe the design randomized controlled trial according to Greenhalgh (2006) is Parallel group comparison. This is when each group receives a different treatment and both are entered into the experiment at the same time. By comparing the groups an analysis is provided. In the Lincoln et al (2004) study Participants were divided into two groups, A and B with the former receiving routine care while the latter received the intervention Ã¢â¬â rehabilitation with the multi-professional community stroke team. The question posed by the authors could have been answered using a qualitative approach. The question could possible state; Evaluation of a multiprofessional community stroke team: a phenomenological study. SAMPLE Altman (1991) states that a study should have enough participants recruited in order to detect a significant effect if one exists. The sample group consisted of patients referred to the Nottingham Community Stroke Team who had suffered a stroke within the last two years, who were over sixteen years old and needed intervention from more than one multidisciplinary team member. Patients who lived outside the geographical area and/or had been treated by the community stroke team in the preceding two years were excluded. Four hundred and twenty eight patients were randomly selected at the start of the trial and randomly allocated to either Group A or Group B. An error resulted in seven people being recruited twice. This error was corrected by including only the outcome of their initial recruitment when the results were being analyzed. The target population of this study is relatively clearly defined (patients who have had a stroke within last two years, over the age of sixteen, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ ) and lends credence to the external validity of the study (Payton, 1994). According to Sim and Wright (2000) the accessible population is the portion of the target population that is available to the researcher and the sample is then taken from this accessible population. The groups are similar to each other with regards to gender and age distribution; this also increases the validity of the study as this similarity reduces the variables of the study. The overall population was a convenience sample which was then randomized to two groups. Six months after randomization all the patients were sent a letter asking them to consent to being in a study to evaluate the input of a community stroke team. According to Lincoln et al (2004) the consent forms and outcome questionnaires were sent this late so as to reduce bias. It was thought that group A which was receiving routine care would have lower expectations if confronted with the realization that the alternate group may receive superior care. Some would possibly insist on being referred to the specialist community stroke team The Local Research Ethics Committee granted ethical approval for this study to go ahead. This indicates that the value of the research undertaken outweighed any harm that this consenting method may have caused as patients in Group A were still receiving routine care. However, the department of health has issued guidelines which state that participants must be consented and all pertinent information given prior to the start of any study. Data was collected via a questionnaire comprising of the Barthel Index, Extended ADL, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and Euroquol. The participants were also asked to rate their knowledge of the expected extent of recovery from their stroke, and their overall satisfaction with the services they received from the community stroke team. The use of a questionnaire for data collection has both negative and positive aspects. Greenhalgh (2006) states that a questionnaire is an instrument used to measure human psychology, so whilst sending the questionnaire via post proves to be cost effective as the alternative would be to hold face to face interviews with the participants as focus groups or individually, it raises concerns about the reliability of the study. This is because the researcher is not present to interpret facial expressions and body language when the participants answer the questions. The alternative of conducting face to face interviews with such a large number of participants would prove to be costly and time consuming. However, according to Oppenheim (2003) long questionnaires are sometimes off putting and may generate low response rates, conducting these questionnaires via the postal service could possibly increase the likelihood of a low response rate. The results were shown as a table and diagram, the Mann-Whitney U-test which was used to compare the groups showed no significant differences on independence in personal or instrumental activities of daily living or on the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ mood. There was also no significant difference between the groups in their knowledge with regards to the resources available to assist them in adjusting to life after a stroke. There was also no difference between the two groups with overall satisfaction or in satisfaction with the practical helped received. However, patients in the Community Stroke Team were significantly more satisfied with the emotional care they received. (Lincoln et al, 2004) According to Wright et al (2009) the Mann-Whitney U-test is used when one group from the sample is larger than the other and when both samples are from the same population, as is the case with this study. There was no significant difference in carersÃ¢â¬â¢ mood between the two groups. However, the strain on carers of patients seen by the community stroke team was significantly less than that of carers of patients randomized to the routine care group. The carers of patients in the community stroke team group were significantly more satisfied with their knowledge of stroke and had higher overall satisfaction than the carers of those in the routine group. By utilizing the randomized controlled trial design the author lends credence to its validity as this design allows for the eradication of systematic bias. (Sim et al, 2000) This was done through the sampling process of selecting the participants from the target population and randomly allocating them to Group A which received routine care or Group B those in the care of the community stroke team. The collection of data by using a postal questionnaire helps to Ã¢â¬Å"blindÃ¢â¬ the researcher as he cannot influence the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ response. Although some participants did not respond to the questionnaire, others responded with incomplete forms, some died and a few were recruited twice, the author is cognizant of this and incorporates it into his findings. Crombie (2000) states that if the withdrawals and failures to respond can be seen as being consistent between both comparison groups then the results of the research will not be negatively impacted upon. This is because the results show that these failures are random among both groups and not specific to one. However one major fault is the fact that the services received by Group A were not collected due to impracticalities and unreliable recollections of the patients. Critical appraisal is not just an exercise in fault finding, it is the analysis of these faults and the assessment of their potential impact on the research which allows the reader to come to a decision regarding the strength or usefulness of the article being critiqued. In order for the research results to be utilized in clinical practice itsÃ¢â¬â¢ reliability and validity are essential aspects which need to be covered. (Polger and Thomas, 2008) This article shows a research that was methodically sound and well designed. The sample was representative of the population being examined and attempts were made to minimize bias. The author was aware of the shortfalls of this research and attempted to incorporate this in his findings however, most of the issues identified did not affect the results of the study. The study if repeated would provide comparable results. However, the author states that the study provides evidence supporting the use of a community based stroke team to assist in the rehabilitation of stroke patients because of the increased emotional support for patients and greater satisfaction and reduced strain on carers. This statement would have been better justified on results from a qualitative study as this type of study aims to interpret peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional and psychological response to the intervention or interventions being employed. The results from such a study would be closer to the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ and carers true feelings as the methodology behind that study would be different.
Are You a Good communicator? | Are you A Good Communicator ? | Sharice Vanlanham| | HCA/230| 3/31/2013| Robert Smiles, PhD. | Ã¢â¬ Effective listening skills are an asset in our professional and personal relationships. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ The good news is that with the right know how and a little practice, these skills can be developed. Ã¢â¬ By Marian K, 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Communication combines both speaking and listening, and there is no point of one without the other. If you only send out clear messages, but fail to receive and comprehend them, and then you failed to communicate effectively.For good communication, you need both good speaking and effective listening skillÃ¢â¬ . For example Ã¢â¬Å"effective listening strategies involve putting in place a number of practiceÃ¢â¬â¢s to start an effort to block out distractions and focusing on what the speaker is saying. Also effective listening consist of understanding and correctly interpreting body language which is important because t he message can only be interpreted correctly when it is received along with the body language in person. In order to developed effective listening skills, a person must put the above mentioned points into practice.One can play out effective listening activities, such as role playsÃ¢â¬ , with a friend to help you practice effective listening. Quality interpersonal relationships are important in the health care industry because effective communication in health care is crucial for health care professionals. According to Joey Papa contributor, Ã¢â¬Å"interpersonal communication must be clear, thorough and comprehensive. The health care industry survived on collaborate communication efforts between doctors, nurses, specialists, insurance companies and many other individuals. Ã¢â¬Å" Interpersonal communication is the glued that holds industry together. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ It provides a safeguard of customer satisfaction and can prevent a medical mistake with huge repercussions. Ã¢â¬ In fact Ã¢â¬Å"communication is an essential key ingredient in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s medical field, as numerous professionals and patients strive to build a trusting and open relationship with each otherÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"The main purpose is for one to build the kind of relationship that result in improved patient care and outcomes. Therefore listening and empathizing response skills, enables us to respond to patients and others in a caring and respectful mannerÃ¢â¬ .Defensive relationships is Ã¢â¬Å"defined as that behavior which occurs when an individual perceives threat or anticipates threat in the groupÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Defense arousal prevents the listener from concentrating upon the message, not only do defensive communicators send off multiple value, motive and affect cues, but also defensive recipients distort what they receiveÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"As a person becomes more and more defensive, he or she becomes less able to receive the motives and values and emotions of the senderÃ¢â¬ .For e xample A rude doctor directly challenge a nurse question ideaÃ¢â¬â¢s or knowledge in public while devaluing the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Supportive communication is when communication emphasizes a problem or a situation and its potential solution or possible changes, in instead of focusing on the other person involved and their personal traits or characteristicÃ¢â¬â¢s, by taking that approach, the communication can be more effective because the other person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel as defensive. Supportive communication is better to use in the health care field because it requires a non-judgmental attitude.The person your speaking with should know she can express her feelings without fear of condemnation or retaliation, also its good for health care because its practiceÃ¢â¬â¢s empathy, so the person you are talking to understands what are situations is and what he or she is going through and when a patient becomes more friendly and warm to trust enough to talk to. Assertive commun ication is a form of behavior characterized by a confident declaration or affirmation of statement without need of proof, this affirms the personÃ¢â¬â¢s rights or points of view without either aggressively threatening the rights of another.Assertive style is most likely appropriate in health care because it helps professionals feel good about themselves and others, and leads to the development of respect with others while increasing self-esteem. Using assertive communication in the work environment helps reduce stress on others and it protects patients from being taken advantage of by nurses or doctors along reducing anxiety. We all use assertive communication behavior at times, yet being trained in assertive communication increase appropriate behavior towards others. Reference: www. buzzle. com www. healthy. net
Friday, August 30, 2019
The business organization of the consulting company is that the leadership group will work hands-on with the consultants to ensure internal customer knowledge and external customer satisfaction. The consultant staff will work with the sales staff for a week to understand the tasks that they have. The sales staff will work with the consultants at the business to better understand the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation. The Human Resources Department will work all facets of the business to have an understanding, this will allow them to speak to performance issues if they should arise. The potential legal issues that this business might face are if there are inaccuracies with billing. The consultants will also face challenges with following both policies of the consulting company, and adhering to the policies of our clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Failure to do so on our behalf will result in a breach of contract by our company. The ethical issues that the business will have is to act as if the co nsultant was an employee of the company. The consultant should refrain from the fraternization of employees of our client. Our client needs to know where they can optimize profit and fraternizing with their employees would hinder the consultantÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to give a fair assessment if they were looking to cut jobs to save costs. The business culture of the consulting firm will be customer-centric. Every employee with put the customer at the core of everything that we do. The leaders of the company will put the internal customers at their core and employees will put the clients at theirs. The company will build on the foundation of putting people first. The Human Resources Department will be in charge of following-up to ensure that we are executing at the highest level in this area. The company will use anonymous employee surveys and customer surveys to ensure the highest satisfaction to internal and external customers. The motivation that the company will utilize will be a comprehensive benefitsÃ package to include 401K with a 5% match, health insurance, and performance based bonus program. The co mpany will also have a variety of cross-training to all employees to ensure that the employees are well trained to perform their tasks efficiently. The technology that the company will use will be computers, laptops, cell phones, and tablets. The computers will be used to process all the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ invoices and will store the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ contacts also. The company will store any excess information on an external hard drive. The laptops will be given to the sales, consulting, and to Human Resources Departments. The cell phones will be given to all employees to stay in contact with company personnel and the customers. The tablets will be given to the consultants to document notes while at the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s location. The Human Resources Department will handle the five components of human resources management in the following manner: 1) Recruitment and Selection Ã¢â¬â The applicant selection process is based off their experience and education, with an emphasis on experience. Human Resources will also look into job history and background. Once HR screens the potential employee, they will schedule a second interview with operations leadership with the applicant. 2) Training and Development Ã¢â¬â HR will setup the training schedule for the new employees and will schedule the new employee with a top performer in the department. For the existing employees, HR will also schedule and track all the employees to ensure that they get cross-training in the other departments to understand the business better. 3) Performance Appraisal and Feedback Ã¢â¬â HR will be in charge of tracking performance appraisals and feedback. However, the leaders of each department will be responsible for executing this and forwarding the information to the HR Department. HR will put this information into the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personnel files. 4) Pay and benefits Ã¢â¬â The pay structure and benefits will be looked at and setup with collaboration of the owner and the HR Department. HR will keep leadership aware of current pay in this field in order to retain employees. HR will ensure that employees receive the benefits package that the company offers when they become eligible for them. 5) Labor relations Ã¢â¬â HR will schedule employee commitment and satisfaction surveys and compile the results for the leadership of the company. Pulse surveys will also be used by HR to follow-up on results from the commitment and satisfaction survey opportunities that the employees highlight. The costs of operationsÃ on the business would include the following: lease, payroll, insurance, taxes, legal fees, utilities, cell phone, and office supplies. The business would need all of these items to run the operations effectively. The company is relying on their quality service for their clients business to cover all these costs, and to ensure that the business is profitable.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Understanding Vietnamese Culture - Essay Example A number of Vietnamese in America come from the southern regions of Vietnam and talk the same dialect as the interpreters, difficulties can arise (Pham 2005, p.10). Different pronunciations can convey different nuances (Karnow 2000, p.20). Also, even though their words can be spelled similarly, their true meaning depends on the spoken accent. The family gets valued highly in the Vietnamese family, and it plays a central part in the culture. This family becomes extended consisting of married sons, daughters in law; young unmarried adult daughters, and the grandchildren (Shapiro 2002, p.13). The family structure is patriarchal. The eldest male is the family decision maker and spokesman. In the traditional families of Vietnamese, the husbands make crucial decisions on matters outside the home, while the wives take care of homes and have the responsibility of making decisions concerning healthcare (Pham 2005, p.10). The elders in the community become highly honored and respected (Karnow 2000, p.20). The kids are at all times required to obey them. Decisions regarding the community get made on the basis of common good, mostly under the direction of one of the elderly males(Pham 2005, p.10). Individualism becomes discouraged totally in the line of the family responsibilities that enhance interdependence, sense of belonging and support. The Vietnamese people have wide religious beliefs that play a significant part in their normal way of life. This also includes the decisions regarding end of life matters and health care. A number of Vietnamese people practice Buddhism (Karnow 2000, p.20). These religions posit that people should live a virtuous life by ignoring personal desire. Other beliefs include; animism, ancestor worship, the philosophical principles of Confucianism and also Taoism that symbolizes the importance of family life, harmony and social virtues (Karnow 2000, p.20). People of Southern Vietnam practice Christianity, mostly Catholicism.Ã
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Discussion - Assignment Example Information gained contributes to the enhancement of purchase intentions. Further on the consumer moves forward in search of other competitors related to the same product category and then selects the one that best suits oneÃ¢â¬â¢s need and purchase potentials. In this stage the consumer tends to deal with a plethora of options relating to the product and chooses the one that turns out to be the most applicable. Finally the consumer generally in the course of making high price purchases like luxury cars tends to continually revaluate the decision by focusing on gaining more information that further reinforces oneÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing intentions (Baines, Fill and Page 83-86). Automobile companies like General Motors to increase the level of consumer attention tend to enhance their relationship aspects has created a website that helps the consumers choose between a large number of options to select the vehicle suiting their needs. Further the website also informs the consumers relatin g to the different financing options and also the cost parameters related to the different models. General Motors in such ventures also tends to present to the consumers a comparison between its models with other models produced in the same category by its competitor firms. This mode of communication rendered enhances the dimension of consumer loyalty for the luxury goods company here acts as an effective advisor tending to meet the needs of the consumer. Moreover the level of consumer advocacy is enhanced by firms like General Motors inviting the people to take test drives of their models for a continual period of 24 hours. This strategy pursued helps in enhancing the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s relation to the commodity thereby rightly increasing the likelihood for the purchase (Urban 77-81). Thus it is evident that use of information technology has contributed to the development of customer relationship activities for the luxury goods and vehicle companies thereby contributing to the devel opment of brand awareness. The enhanced use of internet based marketing and promotional events contributes to the pulling of consumer interests for the commodities in the pursuit of creating increasing the level of consumer awareness (McGovern, Court, Quelch and Crawford 74). Consumers of luxury good and vehicles further tend to search of new and innovative relationship aspects with the respective companies in the form of evidence of loyalty ventures through which they can earn rebates and occasional or promotional discounts. Introduction of loyalty schemes and creation of loyalty club by the companies tends to excite further consumer attention and interest in procuring the merchandises concerned from the concerned companies (Fournier, Dobscha and Mick 48). Consumption of a Luxury-Car from the Experimental Perspective The consumption patterns of consumers in terms of procuring luxury cars and merchandises tends to be largely governed by the opinions, value sets and attitudes develop ed by them in relation to their existing social and cultural framework. Again the preference patterns of the consumers are also governed in terms of the ideologies reflected by the different groups to which they relate to. Social and cultural affluences along with group influences tend to largely govern the purchasing patterns of the c
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Assignment One Statistics - Essay Example The researcher makes a general conclusion that all birds prefer to swim in the water. The researcher makes an error because the researcher was instructed to observe birds. Consequently, the researcher should have complied with the research conditions. The researcher should have observed all types of birds. For example, there are different types of birds. The seagulls fly over the waters to feed on fishes trying to take in air from the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. The monkey-eating eagles are eagles that eat monkeys for food. The swallow are small birds. The chickens prefer to stay on the ground, instead of swimming on the water. The Swan is a beautiful white bird that swims effortlessly inside a body of water. The ostrich is a bird that is as big a human being. Second, the researcher makes a general conclusion based on a certain group or community (Brady 138). For example, the researcher observes a group of Eskimo residents in their Igloo homes. The researcher, an Alaska resident, makes a n erroneous conclusion that human beings can freely live in an icy condition. The researcher makes general the conclusion that people are comfortable living and working in the subzero weather conditions. To correct the erroneous inquiry outcome, the researcher should have invited people to stay in Alaska, a subzero icy location. The African resident who arrives in AlaskaÃ¢â¬â¢s subzero weather conditions will surely feel uncomfortable in the icy weather. The African resident is used to the hot 110 degree desert weather. The African resident will feel uncomfortable using the thick Eskimo dress. The same resident African resident will feel uncomfortable moving around the icy land surface using a sledge. Further, the rainforest resident would also feel uncomfortable living in the Igloos. The same rainforest would not engage in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite beach activities because the icy waters are too cold for human swimming. The rainforest citizen may not accept the sudden change of envir onment from the comfortable familiarity of the rains of the Amazon rainforest to the subzero weather condition. Third, the researcher makes illogical research reasoning (Schell 93). The researcher can make erroneous observation by implicating a wrong statistical procedure. For example, the total of the male count is erroneous written as 10 instead of the correct 1,000. If the true female count is 200, the wrong male count shows erroneous findings that the female respondents are more than the male respondents. Likewise, erroneous mixing up the data will generate a wrong research outcome. Consequently, the other research findings will erroneously crop up. The other research findings may include the erroneous finding that the males are erroneously better than females, in terms of making daily choices. Question 2. Inductive and deduction research. Deductive research starts from the general and finishes with the specific (Bachman 48). The researcher observes several animals. The research er observes that eagle has wings. The researcher also sees that the ostrich has wings. The researcher kingfisher bird has wings. Lastly, the researcher sees several ducks and swans effortlessly swimming in the nearby lake. Based on the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s observation of the different types of birds, the researcher makes a concept or theory that all birds have wings. On the other hand, inductive research starts with the specific and finishes with
Monday, August 26, 2019
Where do toll road fees go - Essay Example gh state law states that it is up to the county attorney to decide what to do with the funds collected, it is only common sense to suggest that the funds are put back into the local county transportation system. Stafford suggested that the law does not provide any provisions for having to use it all on the toll road. Yes, that is correct, but the fact remains that not a single cent is put back into the toll road. Where the money actually goes is to provide parties for county events and also to pay employees of the local county. I believe that there should be more accountability on the part of the county attorney. What he is currently doing is almost stealing because he is using taxpayer dollars to fund something that the taxpayers have not been consulted about. Not all of the toll road fines fund needs to be put back into the toll road, but a significant portion of it needs to be used so there is
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Singapore - Recruitment and selection - Assignment Example Starbucks makes an effort to recruit the best candidates who can be groomed to take up different strategic positions in the organization. The company also uses the strategy of internship to nurture talent among the people still at college. Starbucks America and Singapore are not very different since they have the same vision and they operate using the same business principles and models. Both shops strive to be equal opportunity employers and they accommodate people from diverse backgrounds to work in their shops. There are different recruitment firms and agencies in Singapore and they use their websites to headhunt for talented employees for different placements. According to BlueSteps, the Association of Executive Search Consultants (AESC) has 20 member executive search firms that operate in Singapore. This association specializes in executive recruiting across a diverse group of industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid on senior management roles and regional leaders. Firms intending to hire executive employees can use the services offered by these firms. There are also other employment agencies that offer services related to external recruitment to different organizations in Singapore. These professional recruitment firms are privately owned. ... According to HRM Asia, companies should make an effort to give first preference to locals in terms of recruitment. However, Americans can find it a bit easy to get work permits if they are going to work in American companies in Singapore. The main reason is that the Singaporean companies seek to recruit and attract the best talent from the expatriates going to work in this country. People with work permits can also apply for permits of their dependents so that they can also stay together in Singapore. The Strait Times is the best newspaper to advertise for a job or to search for different types of work available. This paper is very popular in Singapore and the employers and recruiters alike often use it to place advertisements for different jobs. It is comprised of a jobs section and it covers different types of jobs from ordinary to executive posts. The paper also uses online advertisements for different jobs in Singapore. The internet is widely used by the recruiters to search for suitably qualified candidates to fill different vacancies in various organizations. There are also websites such as jobs.com that are used by employers to recruit suitably qualified employees to join their companies. Basically, the structures of advertisements in Singapore and America are not very different. They contain similar information which is basic about a particular job being advertised. For instance, each advertisement has information like job position, tasks to be performed by the incumbent person qualifications as well as experience. The advertisements also have information such as contact details that can be used by the potential candidates to respond to. The advertisements in these two countries are designed in such as way that they are easy to
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Adjusting Process discussion - Assignment Example In certain cases, the records are not reorganized except at the closing stages of the period. The adjustments are updated because certain expenses are never recorded on a daily basis, certain revenues and operating expense are acquired as business transpires rather than as a detached transaction and certain revenues and operating costs may not be recorded. The four categories of accounts that require adjusting entries include; prepaid expenses, accrued expenses, unearned revenues and accrued revenues (Warren, Carl, James, and Jonathan 105). In accordance to ethics, there are dictations that a commodity ought to have a precise date by which money ought to be recompensed to the buyer in cases where the commodity has not been utilized as a charge up to the moment it is either utilized or recompensed. This means that the gift card ought to have an expiry date to ensure that fairness is dictated. A gift card assures that the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s money is not used up at the same situate where they purchased the card. The implications are that accounting for the cards transaction offers an evolving reporting for vendors. The accounting for the previous transaction for the cards cannot reveal any reputed worth but rather a legal responsibility for overdue profits and the unused cost creates problems in
Friday, August 23, 2019
Activities of KKD in the International Market - Essay Example The paper tells that Krispey Kreme stores are located in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Kuwait, Mexico, The Philippines, South Korea and United Kingdom. In fiscal 2007, 60 new international stores were opened, while 5 international stores were closed down. Krispey Kreme concentrates on their development effort, primarily in Asia and Middle East. In 2007, The Krispey Kreme was awarded the development rights in the Middle East, Hong Kong, Tokyo, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The developments and franchise agreements for these territories provide for the development of in these regions 200 stores. The International Franchise division consists of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s global store franchise activities. Worldwide franchise stores trade in doughnuts and complementary products, exclusively through the appropriate sales channel as in the case of Krespey Kreme direct outlets, using the same store formats as in the company stores segment. The International Franchise division also uses a kiosk format for the effective operation. The North Carolina-based Krispy Kreme has come to Asia. The KKD opened its first shop in Hong Kong and then in Indonesia. Tokyo, Manila and Macau outlets were opened as they expanded their business in Asia. For the other part of the continent, KKD opened outlets in Kuwait; with an eye on is setting up this fall in Kuwait with additional shops planned for the Saudi Arabia, Egypt and United Arab Emirates. Hong Kong and other Asian countries are relatively easier targets now, than it were it were a few years ago. External Environment of Krispey Kreme: In the US market, Krispy Kreme faces completion in baking industry. Krispey Kreme production includes breads, pies, doughnuts, cakes and coffee. The competition is exceedingly high and so firms must be able to provide cheap, differentiated products to the purchaser who needs them for low switching costs. In America, the people are busy and they always go for the fast food which makes t hem fatty and diabetic. Now the people are aware of this problem, and they are choosy in food as well as taste. In international market, the DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢s Donuts is the main competitor for the Krispey Kreme donuts because it offers or similar lines products to the customers. The DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢s donuts have a reputation in international market as they only introduced the first zero gram fatty products for the customers. The Asian franchises sell doughnuts only at their outlets aiming at monopoly. KKDÃ¢â¬â¢s business in the United States actually concentrates on wholesale business. Krispy Kreme has appended its base in the US by supplementing them with other items, in supermarkets and convenience stores. The Challenges: 1)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Competitive: KrispyKreme functions in the area of expertise eatery business; on the other hand they compete with all outlets that a customer can access with the intention of satisfying usage for snacks, coffee, or treat-based objects. These o utlets consist of other area of expertise eateries, fast food outlets, local expediency stores, and other retail atmospheres that store coffee and other beverages. With regard to their core merchandise, Krispy Kreme also has to compete with unbranded doughnut producers that are sold through supermarkets and doughnut vans. 2)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Economic/Financial: The continued financial recession is destined to tighten customerÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditure. As Krispy Kreme is a non-necessary food article this may pressure sales. Price rises is not the target of Bank of England as there is upward stress on long-term rates of interest all over UK. An increase in interest rates will enhance the price of capital and denote more luxurious borrowing for Krispy Kreme, which is deeply engaged in competition with its rivals. 3)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Physical Environment: Due to the increase in rivalry, it is vital for Krispy Kreme to pursue the real trends and be a step
Marketing mix of Coca-cola in the United Kingdom and the United States - Essay Example The Coca-Cola brand name was developed because of the ascetic value of the two Cs and the thought that this would make the company name stand out. In 1887 the extract and syrup for Coca-Cola was copyrighted. At this point, Asa Chandler became involved in the company, and attained personal control of both the formula and patents. He finally purchases the company in 1892 and continues to advertise the product and grow the company. In 1899, Chandler contracts a Chattanooga company to bottle Coca-Cola, a distribution technique that the company continues today. By 1913, the company was spending more than $1 million annually in advertising, had began expansion into Asia and was distributed through upwards of 415,000 retailers. In 1916, the contour bottle was developed, a distinctive advertising tool that was used to ensure recognisability of Coca-Cola. A substantial change came about for the Coca-Cola Company in 1919 when it was purchased by a group of investors, head of which was Earnest Woodruff. Throughout the following decades, the company continued to develop, including the use of movie stars in advertising for the product, overseas bottling and the presence of Coca-Cola in South Africa, Australia and Austria. As the company continues to develop, additional beverages are added, and the distribution of the products expands throughout the world . Coca-Cola is now the most recognizable brand of soft drink worldwide, and may be the most recognizable brand of any industry. Currently, Coca-Cola products are present in more than 200 countries and it is estimated that 1.7 billion servings of products are consumed each day. Worldwide, the company employs 139,600 staff members . The company is the largest beverage company... This essay will examine the marketing mix employed by Coca-Cola in two countries, the United States, where the brand was first developed and the United Kingdom. This consists of four key components, known as the 4Ps: product, price, promotion and placement. Coca-Cola has become a household name worldwide since its humble beginnings 125 years ago. Much of this growth comes from Coca-Colas innovative marketing methods and the way that the company quickly responds to changes in demand and public opinion. This can be seen in the use of Santa Claus as an icon to increase winter sales and the recent marketing work to associate Coca-Cola with happiness. Coca-Cola has a large product line, which differs depending on the country. The USA and UK are different markets with different market environments, although they do have many similarities. For the most part, Coca-Cola has continued with its global strategy of using a general advertising approach, rather than one that is specific to country. The main differences in marketing mix between the UK and the USA is the focus that the UK has on the environment and the need for additional information on packaging for the UK market that is not required in the US market. This trend may continue within the UK, creating significant differentiation between the two markets but currently Coca-Cola effectively in both countries uses most of the same marketing mix.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
A Great Way to Care Essay In chapter fifteen 2b or Not 2b? of They Say / I Say, David Crystal provides arguments in favour of text messaging. Crystal tries to prove his point that text messaging is not destroying the English language with great research, a lot of examples and a clear organization. As the author himself puts it, Texting has added a new dimension to language use, but its long-term impact is negligible. Its not a disaster. . Although some people believe text messaging is pillaging our punctuation, savaging our sentences and raping our vocabulary, Crystal insist that. In sum, then, his view is that the abbreviations were used as a natural, intuitive response to a technological problem, but that they are also more than just time and energy saving act. He considers some texts also as linguistically quite complex. Im two minds about how texting effects the english language. On the one hand, I gree that texting can be very creative and that the abbreviations we use in text massaging are nothing new, he gives use countless examples like IOU (I owe you), which is known from the year 1618 . On the other hand Im not sure if these arguments can stand against the accusations that texting is destroying the english language. For me his arguments are not convincing enough. From my own experiences (english as a foreign language) it seemed pretty hard to understand and nonsense when I heard my friends actually talking the way they text usually, like saying cos instead of because or lol. Text messaging is in this case no more just about texting, it actually effects also the way we talk. Overall I believe text messaging is a great way to communicate and motivates people to be creative and create new words or abbreviations, but it also does form its own language separating itselfs more and more from the traditional English. If its good or worse is out of my ability to judge at this time.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Positive Discrimination and Gender Equality Positive discrimination is sometimes used to help enforce gender equality in the working place. Basic questions to be answered before analyzing the concept of positive discrimination deal with the necessity of action. What does the gender situation look like in the working place? Is there actually a need for action, for positive discrimination? Looking at employment statistics gives a direction in finding answers to such questions. Only 57.2% of the women aged 15-64 in the European Union were working 2006 while 71.6% of men were. The difference in unemployment was not so large with 9.0 % of women being unemployed compared to 7.6% of men in 2006. However, the share of part time workers in total employment shows significant differences. Of the working women 31.4 % worked only part time in 2007 while the male percentage was considerably lower with only 7.8 %. The pay gap between womens and mens earnings, another important factor to measure equality which indicates the difference in average gross hourly earnings as a percentage of mens average gross hourly earnings, was at 15 % in 2006 in the EU. All these figures show that a gender gap exists in working life. The qualitative aspect of employment illustrates the inequality even more obviously. Womens share among managers in enterprises and administrations in the European Union for example was only at 32.6 % in 2006 (all figures from the Commission of the European Communities 2008). These statistics show clearly that gender equality is by far not reached. In order to strengthen equality within the working place positive discrimination measures are introduced in different forms and places according to the legal framework. Whether such measures are indeed helpful tools in enforcing gender equality will be the main topic of this paper. In order to be as precise as possible the discussion will concentrate on the situation in Europe. The basic ideas and arguments however should be universally valid. After introducing the concept of positive action an illustrating example from Norway concerning gender quotas on company boards will be presented. Thereafter the general arguments in favor and against positive discrimination will be discussed before concluding with the legal limits of the concept within the European Union. 2. Positive Discrimination What is positive discrimination? First of all, when discussing positive discrimination, the terminology needs to be clarified. Within this discussion several terms sometimes used as synonyms sometimes used with a different meaning can be found. The most common of these terms are positive discrimination, positive action and affirmative action. As this paper will concentrate on the situation in Europe, the terms positive action and positive discrimination will be used only. Positive action is a common European synonym of affirmative action whereas the usage of positive discrimination implies that the targets of the actions receive special favors (Bacchi C.L. 1996: X). Positive action constitutes proactive programs redressing past and present discrimination of certain group members identified mostly by race and gender (Bacchi 1996: X). Sterba defines affirmative action, which is in this case a synonym for positive action, as a policy of favoring qualified women and minority candidates over qualified men or non-minority candidates with the immediate goals of outreach remedying discrimination, or achieving diversity, and the ultimate goals of attaining a colorblind (racially just) and a gender-free (sexually just) society (in Burns and Schapper 2008: 373). Although the concept is used for several discrimination features, this paper will discuss positive action in the context of gender only. Positive action can be applied in the private and the public sector. However, the latter one is more often addressed by legal regulations (Bacchi 1996: 16). We usually find two classifications of positive action: soft options that increase the possibility of promotion and recruitment for the underrepresented group, for example through training, and hard or strong options that target promotion and recruitment of the underrepresented gender, for example through quota requirements (Bacchi C.L. 1996: 16). This paper will concentrate on the latter form of positive action and refer to it as positive discrimination. Example: Gender quotas on company boards in Norway When looking at different positive discrimination measures in Europe, one regulation stands out: the legislation on representation of both sexes on company boards in Norway. The country has come up with a law forcing companies to constitute their boards in a way that both sexes are represented by at least 40%. This implies not only for state-owned companies but also for public limited companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange, in other words, companies in the private sector (Norwegian Government Ministry of children, equality and social Inclusion 2005). As positive discrimination usually takes place in the public sector the Norwegian initiative is quite an astonishing regulation. Also the harsh enforcement is remarkable. If companies fail to fulfil the requirement of the 40% quota, they can actually be dissolved (Norwegian Government Ministry of children, equality and social Inclusion 2005). As for the reason for such a policy the Norwegian government argued that balanced representation is a question of democracy. Furthermore it stated that making use of all the resources in a country is necessary and that the Norwegian women are equally qualified as men. Ultimately, the government believed increased diversity in the board rooms to lead to higher successes of the companies (Norwegian Government Ministry of children, equality and social Inclusion 2005). Critics of the quota claimed that the owners should decide upon the recruitment and not a quota. Furthermore they emphasized that attitudes cannot be changed by legal enforcement. Also, they pointed at the risk of not finding enough qualified women (Criscione 2008). However, another reason for the objection was the danger of losing power. The Director of Norways Professional Boards Forum, Elin Hurvenes, stated The outrage was not only about opening boardroom doors to women it was about pushing men out the same doors (in Criscione 2008). When the law came into force in 2006 the affected companies had two years to adapt to the regulation without being penalized, until since 2008 they must comply with it (Norwegian Government Ministry of children, equality and social Inclusion 2005). And they do so, as no company was dissolved so far. While women on corporate boards made up only 6 % in 2002, they reached more than 40% by the beginning of 2009 due to the quota (Winsnes RÃ ¸dland 2009). Supporters of the initiative argue that the companies had no problems in finding enough qualified women. Furthermore they suggest that the recruitment process in general has become more systematically both for finding men and women (Lindstad 2009). A study undertaken by the Institute for Social Research in Oslo stated that there is no embarrassment among women because of to the quota. The women know they would not be on the company boards without legal enforcement but at the same time they know exactly they have the qualifications for i t (Lindstad 2009). Arguments for and against As seen with the Norwegian argumentation, supporters of positive discrimination believe that diversity adds to success and that using all human capital is vital (Norwegian Government Ministry of children, equality and social Inclusion 2005, Bekkemellem 2006). This view is supported by a study of the US non-profit organization Catalyst which found out that companies who have three or more women on the board perform better on profits and sales (Criscione 2008). Furthermore supporters argue that it is only fair and democratic to let women reach positions of power because they are equally qualified as men (Norwegian Government Ministry of children, equality and social Inclusion 2005, Lindstad 2009). Missing qualification is one of the main arguments of the opponents of positive discrimination. They believe that the economy suffers from favouring women who are not qualified enough (Burns and Schapper 2008: 372). Additionally they bring forward the argument that through positive discrimination gender plays a role again, the opposite of which is supposed to be the goal of gender equality. They argue that such measures are not fair and lawful as they create another form of discrimination based on gender (Burns and Schapper 2008: 372). This view is also manifested in the terminology of positive discrimination and the sometimes used term reverse discrimination (Burns and Schapper 2008: 372). Moreover the legitimacy of favouring the rights of a group, namely the women, at the expense of the right of an individual, namely a man, is questioned (Burns and Schapper 2008: 373). Some criticism argues that it is not fair to let individuals suffer for past discrimination that was committed by others (America 1986: 73). Opponents are also against quotas in the private sector, because they suggest that the owners of companies should decide whom to appoint and that legal enforcement cannot change attitudes (Criscione 2008). They point at the perception of women as well and suggest that positive discrimination might result in negative reactions from the potential or intended beneficiaries (Taylor-Carter, Doverspike and Alexander 1995: 285). This reaction was at least not the case in Norway. As mentioned above, women felt no embarrassment due to the quota (Lindstad 2009). Another reason for objecting positive discrimination is often forwarded by the supporters of it to emphasize that the criticism is not justified: only because men are not willing to give up their power positions they fight so aggressively against positive discrimination (Criscione 2008; Burns and Schapper 2008: 374). Furthermore, supporters question the fact that recruitment is really based on qualification when men are appointed (Burns and Schapper 2008: 377). Some see the reason for appointing mainly men in the fact that the employers are male as well. Thus, they tend to favour candidates that are like them and to avoid differences, which means appointing someone from the different sex (Burns and Schapper 2008: 377). If this thesis holds, positive discrimination could result in appointing women to higher posts naturally in the long run, because women are then already included in the decision-making process as well. A final argumentation is as simple as this statement by the former Minister of Children and Equality in Norway, Karita Bekkemellem: So why then regulate this policy area by a new law? Because we realized, that the wanted development in Norway did not go fast enough! We do not have the patience to wait another 100 years! (Bekkemellem 2006). In other words, supporters believe positive discrimination measures are better than waiting until balanced representation will naturally arise. Legal limits to positive discrimination No matter whether positive discrimination is indeed helpful or not, the concept needs legal enforcement in order to be a powerful tool. While Norway for example goes very far with implementing positive discrimination measures as could be seen in the example concerning equal representation in board rooms, the situation looks somewhat different for other countries within Europe. The usage of positive discrimination policies is at the same time supported and restricted by the legal framework of the European Union. The Council Directive 76/207/EEC of 9 February 1976 on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions states that there shall be no gender discrimination (The Council of the European Communities 1976). However, the directive contains an article that gives some room for positive action measures. Article 2.4 states: This Directive shall be without prejudice to mea sures to promote equal opportunity for men and women, in particular by removing existing inequalities which affect womens opportunities  (The Council of the European Communities 1976). The judgement of the European Court of Justice in the case of Eckhard Kalanke, who was denied promotion because of favouring a woman who was equally qualified, shows limits to implementing such measures. The Court declared that a measure automatically favouring an equally qualified woman is illegal (The European Court of Justice 1995). Another case brought some clarification of what kind of actions are legal. In the case of Helmut Marschall a regulation was held lawful that suggested preferential treatment in the case of equal qualification unless reasons specific to an individual [male] candidate tilt the balance in his favour (European Court of Justice 1997). With such a savings clause, which indicates no automatic or unconditional favouring, positive discrimination is lawful. It can be derived that measures of positive discrimination within the European Union are allowed only with strong limitation. It is thus not reasonable to describe positive discrimination as a perfect tool to enforce gender equality. Positive discrimination cannot be forced upon. Regulations need to contain a savings clause and such a clause allows for avoiding the promotion and recruitment of women. 3. Conclusion In conclusion it needs to be affirmed that positive discrimination can help enforce a more gender balanced distribution in the areas where implemented as seen with the example from Norway. In such cases it helps to create the intended result. However, legal limits constrain the concept of positive discrimination. Within the European Union it is a tool that can be used only with equal qualifications of the candidates and a savings clause that leaves room to avoid positive discrimination. Therefore another aspect to be considered concerns the attitudes of society. Without changing them, positive discrimination constitutes only a tool to affect the result. Real gender equality where gender plays no role in appointments is not reached through it, as positive discrimination is another form of discrimination based on gender. Nevertheless, there might be other effects than just creating a result when considering the long run. By accustoming people to a balanced gender distribution, attitudes might be changed in the long run and furthermore the decision-making process might be influenced by women resulting in equal treatment. Whether positive discrimination is fair and beneficial depends on the personal point of view. Taking all the arguments and limits into account it can be concluded that positive discrimination is definitely not a perfect tool. It is the tool with the quickest results though and can thus be described as an adequate tool if the wish for balanced gender re presentation is judged to be more important than the objections against positive discrimination. However, discussing it we should not neglect the necessity of changing attitudes by strengthening the conscience for gender equality in public, for example through the media. Furthermore, the lighter forms of positive action like increasing training measures might be of importance as well (Rees 1992: 130). In the long run this could destroy the argument of women being not qualified enough. Additionally, the question of reconciliation of work and family life should play a major role in the discussion of gender equality and the efficiency of positive discrimination. Taking into consideration the constraints imposed by family life tasks and looking for options and measures to help overcome these could prove to be of great significance.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Role Of Internet And Web Service The roll of internet The internet is a universal technology platform that allows any computer to communicate with any other computer in the world. Furthermore, one of the advantages of the internet is that nobody really owns it. It is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks connect together in many different ways to form the single entity that we know as the internet. 2) The internet has revolutionized communication and thereby its contribution to information sharing. With access to a computer and an appropriate connection, anyone can interact with others worldwide; however the web is designed to exchange unstructured information: while people can read web pages and understand their meaning, computers cannot. 3) If corporations want to conduct business over the web, humans have to be involved unless there is a way for computers to communicate on their own. Web services:- Web services play a complementary and dominant role in building global IS for todays dynamic business world. Web services are self-contained, modular applications that can be described, published, located and invoked over a network. Web services perform functions ranging from simple requests to complicated business processes. Once a web service is developed, other applications and other web services can discover and invoke the deployed service through universal description, discovery and integration. The idea of web service is to leverage the advantages of the web as a platform to apply it to the application services. We use them, not just to the static information. Services refer to components and the services offered that can be used to build larger application services. Benefits of web services for developing IS of global natures are as follows: Web services tools are available for most computer systems, including mainframes and packaged applications. This means that not only the existing applications can be retained, but also the existing knowledge of staff can be applied and extended using web services for business integration. Web services are adaptable and can handle changes ore readily than other integration solutions, because they use structured text as their message format. IT managers now have the ability to exchange data between most applications, on most computers in a consistent and standard way tools and further standards are therefore emerging to build composite applications that can model and manage business processes around these business-level components. If necessary, an alternative application can be used to provide web services without changing the overall effect of the system. Q:-2.How do distributed information systems help the global enterprises? Ans) Distributed information systems help the global enterprises as follows:- Success in the digital economy led by the rise of e-business. Business completion and pressures are on the rise like never before. Business now has no geographical boundaries. With the rise of mobile commerce fuelled by mobile technologies. We are now witnessing the era of anywhere anytime computing. Naturally, information that has been one of the vital corporate resources assumes a higher dimension when it comes to data and information security. There is an important point to be noted-while the industrial age witnessed great developments in terms of engineering, a significant dimension. Producers and consumers of goods all remained disparate and unconnected. They operated is islands of geographical pockets without knowing how the others were transacting their business. Q:-3 briefly describe about the information level threats versus Network level threats? Ans) information level threats versus network level threats:- Information level threats Network level threats Information level threats are threats that involve the dissemination of information in such a way that organizations, their operations and their operations and their reputations may be affected. 1. Network level threats face any application that is connected to an IP network such as the Internet or includes campus and corporate networks. Servers and clients for Email and web applications have faced these threats for ten years or more, and the range of threats and the technologies used to exploit them is well understood. Information level threats also make heavy use of network but at the primary level is the content of a message and not its form. Sending take inquires to service accounts to eat up resources would qualify as an information based attack as it is the content of the messages that would provide a basis for the attack. The example of information based accusation. Such attacks can cause considerable damage to the goodwill of the organization against which they may be launched, and customer loyalty is too good to lose. 2. network based threats are hacking of computer systems and launching of DOS attacks as well as spreading malicious code such as viruses. Other security issues involved when data are transmitted over networks are confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation. A DOS attack that is based on flooding accounts with large quantities of e-mail is a network-based attack as it is the size and the quantity of the e-mail that matters and not the content of the e-mail. Part B Q:-4 how the security challenges presented by mobile devices and information systems access in wireless computing environments? Ans) Mobile computing with real world significance has been expanding since the introduction of laptop computers into everyday use. During the last few years new classes of smaller wireless portable devices have come to the market place. The possible and probable shift from wire-line terminals to relatively cheap, wireless, small, portable devices in huge numbers poses as such new challenges to the security in the network infrastructure. This holds not only for the air-interface, but also for the wire-line backbone network. It is foreseeable that, e.g. roaming between different types of networks becomes necessary and possible. Evidently, secure roaming between the networks is an issue, because otherwise a hostile terminal could take-over a session during hand-over from a network to another. 2) The scope of the security issues related with the terminals will be enhanced as compared to the current voice terminals on one hand and the fixed terminals on the other hand. This is because the internet-enabled terminals will be used as PTDs. to conduct diverse mobile electronic commerce transactions and possibly also transactions towards the authorities. They are also natural part of information systems of corporations. Thus, such a terminal becomes a much more attractive object for ordinary thieve s or fir other people wanting to misuse the cyber-identity of the owner, than the current voice terminals. The information stored into such a device or the access to the corporate networks through stolen device may also be interesting for criminal elements, enemies, or for hard commercial competitors. 3) Location -based services are emerging as a brand-new service typical of the globally roaming PTDs. The possibility to track the persons location at any time is evidently a threat to privacy. The location-based services also entail many security aspects; for instance, if a burglar could track a persons position unnoticed, he/she would know when the owner is far enough so that the home could be robbed. And vice verso, if a person can show her trace on earth she can argue against claims raised against her in criminal cases. Q:-5 what is the role of Information Security Scenario in the financial sector? Ans) Parma Systems, Inc.Ã allows financial organizations to protect their data communications against both internal and external security risks. The last twelve to fifteen years have seen a fundamental transformation occur in the financial services sector mergers and acquisitions, regulatory changes, the globalized economy, new requirements for anytime, anywhere access and the changing role of the technology have reshaped the industry and significantly altered the way financial organizations must manage their businesses. In response to these challenges, financial services organizations have implemented a number of new corporate strategies, remote management and access capabilities, and extended networking infrastructure. However, the infrastructure that supports these new processes is often managed by a myriad of legacy and inherently complex set of networking and security systems. This creates significant complexities with regards to network connectivity and security management.Ã Additional information security challenges arise from a series of legislative and regulatory initiatives including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), Graham-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act (GLBA), and the European Data Privacy Directive (EDPP). These laws require enhanced security and privacy, and raise the legal and financial stakes for enterprises that fail to meet their standards. More legislation that further controls the protection of privacy data is also on the way. Parma Systems, Inc.Ã technologies are designed to help your organization to effectively manage security risks, and comply with external and internal security policies. The Parma product suite allows for your organization to customize and develop a robust, secure, and scalable product that can address the most stringent secure connectivity requirements now and in the future. Q:-6 explain the significance of authentication security service? Ans) There are two components of security in mobile computing: security of devices and security in networks. A secure network access involves the mutual authentication between the device and the base stations or web servers. This is to ensure that only authenticated devices can be connected to the network for obtaining the requested services. No malicious node can impersonate the service provider to trick the device into doing something it does not mean to. Thus, the networks also play a crucial role in the security of mobile devices. Some eminent kinds of attacks to which mobile devices are subjected to be push attacks, pull attacks and crash attacks. Authentications services security is important given the typical attacks on mobile devices though wireless networks: denial of services attacks, traffic analysis, eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attacks and session hijacking. Cryptographic security for mobile devices:- Cryptographically generated addresses. CGA are internet protocol version 6 addresses where up to 64 address bits are generated by hashing the address owners public key. The address owner uses the corresponding private key to assert address ownership and to sign messages sent form the address without a public-key infrastructure of other security infrastructure. For exp, the cryptographic provider manager in palm OS5 is a system-wider suite of cryptographic services for securing data and resources on a palm-powered device. The CPM extends encryption services to any application written to take advantage of these capabilities, allowing the encryption of only selected data or of all data and resources on the device.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Chose a character who might-- on the basis of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s actions alone-- be considered evil or immoral. Explain both how and why the presentation of the character makes us react more sympathetically than we otherwise might. In DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Crime and Punishment, the character of Raskolnikov is one who may be considered evil or immoral for his actions, however his portrayal by the author is one that instills sympathy in the reader for the character due to his motives and personal, internal consequences he suffers for his crime of murder. There is considerable evidence supporting the view that Raskolnikov wants his theory surrounding the murder to be proven wrong, to get caught, and to be punished. This tells the reader that deep down, Raskolnikov knows in his heart what is wrong and right, and that he wants to be brought back down off his pedestal and enter back in to normal human society. RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the "superman" who is above all societal constraints and able to stamp out the weak and detrimental people in society for the common good, is one that is obviously skewed. This prompts Raskolnikov to doubt his reasoning for and consequent execution of the crime. He knows that his theory is wrong, but he has been created by the society in which he lives, which allows him to conjure up wild fantasies and delusions of grandeur. The sympathy Dostoyevsky enforces upon the reader for Raskolnikov is held by the overwhelming signs pointing towards the notion that he knows that he is wrong in his doings. The first indication of RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s need for punishment for his crime appears in his preparation for the crime itself. It is by no means meticulous. To be sure no one will suspect him, he rehearses the crime, counts the steps to AlyonaÃ¢â¬â¢s house, and even devises a noose to carry his axe. Yet as incredible as it may seem, he makes only the most elementary plans for securing the axe and returning it unseen. Everything rests upon NatasyaÃ¢â¬â¢s absence from the kitchen at the precise moment he needs it. Obviously, Raskolnikov is attempting to set himself for failure in this crime so that he may be caught and brought back down and in to society again. The reader may also feel sympathy because Raskolnikov is looking for a way out of his destitute condition. And while his methods are not those of a normal person, the intention prevail... ...p;quot;louse" can affect him so severely, there must be more to life and the human condition than a neatly thought-out theory. He does not know what it is, but intuitively feels that by suffering punishment he may discover it. All his inner conflict surrounding the crime and its consequences, as well as the way he treats himself in order to return to society, instill sympathy in the reader for him. The society that created Raskolnikov and his mental condition ironically is the same one that he longs to once again be a part of, and one able to forgive and sympathize with a creature born out of its own flaws. Dostoyevsky instills sympathy for his character through blame on society. He does not hope to condone his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, only to shift responsibility for RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s mental state on the society that for so long put him down and allowed theories and ideas of getting out of destitution to run rampant in his mind. The irony comes when that same society accepts and understands his cause for wanting to again be normal and function as an effective person. Works Cited Dostoyevsky, Fydor. Crime and Punishment. Wordsworth Editions Limited. Ware, Hertfordshire. 1993.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Piracy is a form of theft. Specifically, it refers to the unauthorized copying or use of intellectual property. Intellectual property is knowledge or expression that is owned by someone. There are three major types of intellectual property: 1) creative works, including music, written material, movies, and software, which are protected by copyright law; 2) inventions, which are protected by patent law; and 3) brand-name products, which are protected by trademarks. Many of the issues surrounding piracy have to do with the difference between intellectual property and physical property. A CD, for example, is a piece of physical property, but the songs on the CD are intellectual property. A customer in a record store can purchase a CD, but someone else still owns, or more precisely, has the copyright to the songs on the CD. Piracy is primarily a problem for the entertainment and software industries, and therefore piracy most often involves violations of copyright law. Copyright is a legal right that protects creative works from being reproduced, performed, or disseminated without permission of the copyright owner. Essentially, a copyright gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of the material in question. Physical piracy-the copying and illegal sale of hard-copy CDs, videotapes, and DVDs-costs the music industry over $4 billion a year worldwide and the movie industry more than $3.5 billion. These numbers do not factor in the growing (and difficult to measure) problem of Internet piracy, in which music and movies are transferred to digital format and copies are made of the resulting computer file. Journalist Charles C. Mann explains why Internet piracy has the potential to be vastly more damaging to copyright industr... ...ple's physical property, there is clearly a social benefit from the wide dissemination of intellectual propertyÃâ"i.e., ideas and their expressions. In Naughton's view, online file sharing does not qualify as "piracy" at all: We have to remind legislators that intellectual property rights are a socially-conferred privilege rather than an inalienable right, that copying is not always evil (and in some cases is actually socially beneficial) and that there is a huge difference between wholesale Ãâpiracy'Ãâ"the mass-production and sale of illegal copies of protected worksÃâ"and the filesharing that most internet users go in for. Although online file sharing debuted in 1999, lawmakers and copyright industries are just beginning to address the myriad questions the practice has generated. In At Issue: Internet Piracy, authors attempt to answer some of those questions.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The word reflection has been used consistently throughout our first module and has been seen to be prerequisite of good teaching and development. Reflecting itself has been a very useful practice. Taking the time to observe and analyse, whilst using a detailed checklist has also enabled us to use this process correctly. I have found that there are patterns within my reflective log and an awareness of what is needed to change in terms of improvement in my teaching practice and how I implement that in a classroom. Phil Race (2014, p228), describes reflection as having the intention to improve by finding out what is going on in an element of learning. By considering what elements of learning I need to address through my ILP I can now adopt feedback and apply improvements for future teaching. Observing has also helped my reflection Donald SchÃ ¶n (1987 p121), talks of imitation through observation. He links the ideology of education to Ã¢â¬Å"thinking for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s selfÃ¢â¬ and th e draws upon the term Ã¢â¬Å"CopycatÃ¢â¬ as a negative expression. However, he goes on to say Ã¢â¬Å"Reflective imitation demands, on the contrary, a willingness to do as the studio master is doing and, at the same time reflect on what one does.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, by observing and imitating we take on the role of our mentor/teacher and at the same time our reflective practice allows us the freedom to explore our own avenues of teaching and the ability to adapt, improve and develop what doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work for us and, what we believe we could do better. Although I appreciate SchÃ ¶nÃ¢â¬Ës models of reflection, I have found I have not yet had enough experience to draw from to Ã¢â¬Å"reflect in actionÃ¢â¬ but I can still use that method where applicable and in future practice. IÃ¢â¬â¢m fond of (Gibbs, 1988) methods pictured below. Gibb allows for a description of what happened, an analysis and evaluation of my experiences. This not only helps me make sense of my experiences but also helps me to examine my own teaching practice. Gibbs is very similar to SchÃ ¶nÃ¢â¬â¢s model of reflection but seeks a little more from the reflective practitioner. Like SchÃ ¶n, it is about Ã¢â¬Å"reflection in actionÃ¢â¬ but aligns further with Ã¢â¬Å"reflection on action.Ã¢â¬ Gibbs model considers taking action and using what you have learned and applying it to practice in the shape of an action plan so if the same situation were to arise again I would have theÃ capacity to reflect Ã¢â¬Å"in action.Ã¢â¬ Personally my own areas of development have been in confidence and time management. By using Gibbs model of reflection I have been able to analyse where I am going wrong. I recognize the value of what I am doing and actively reflect both descriptively and emotionally. As (Brunner, 1994) states the fusion of the inte llectual and the emotional must be present or there cannot be a true reflective practice. For example, in my own practice I have sometimes tried to cover too much ground in a lesson, that has made me worry about the time frame, in turn this has affected my confidence. By analysing both what happened, what I am feeling and then evaluating this, I am able to make sense of the situation and formulate an action plan. I can reduce the amount in my lesson plan but have an activity if the lesson finishes early. If it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it can be given for homework. This helps me in practical terms, but in addition will help me with any confidence and anxiety I may have regarding the time management. Ã¢â¬Å"Reflective thinkingÃ¢â¬ ¦ involves a state of doubt, hesitation, perplexity, mental difficultyÃ¢â¬ ¦[Reflective] personsÃ¢â¬ ¦ weigh, ponder, [and] deliberateÃ¢â¬ ¦ a process of evaluating what occurs to them in order to decide upon its force and weight for their problem.Ã¢â¬ (Dewey, J, 1997) p9 Gibb echoes Dewey above in Ã¢â¬Å"How we thinkÃ¢â¬ and uses the same ideologies of praxis and then draws upon the application of this to the Pedagogy. I will say I have had difficulty selecting the right method for my reflective practice and have employed parts from all models. Steven BrookfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s (1995) Four Lens Theory uses a different model of reflection that encourages an individual to look at the situation from different viewpoints in order to maintain pedagogical rectitude. This is a process that never stops (as are all forms of reflection), and it seems to be the one that works best for me at the present time, as it fits perfectly within the trainee teacher milieu. The first of the four lenses Self would be the foundation of my critical reflection. Perhaps looking at my own experiences as a learner/teacher and the period in between now and qualifying and beyond that. Taking into account the Ã¢â¬Å"paradigmatic assumptions and instinctive reasoningÃ¢â¬â¢s that frame how we work.Ã¢â¬ (Brookfield.S, 1995) p30. This moves into the realm of the Students eyes and my Peers. I can do this by observing and being observed asÃ well as the process of feedback and self-evaluation, (from both my peers and students). This will help me to reveal aspects of the pedagogy that I am strong with and reveal areas of weakness. I can then apply the Scholarship lens, which is something I am currently working on as a trainee. By looking into theoretical literature, I can expand the Epistemology of my subject specialism, the discourse and discursive practice in addition to the pedagogy and learn to put my assumptions and reasoningÃ¢â¬â¢s to one side. I am then able to approach reflection openly and un-defensively. Geoff Petty (2010) explains, if we attribute our problems to something that is out of our control, we are defensive and will not feel the need to change our own practices. However, we should not blame ourselves. Instead we should think about how the lesson could have been made to go well and apply these principles to make sure it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen again. Something that I have found hard is planning my lessons as this has proved to be rather time consuming. Film, Photography and Media Studies all include a broad range of skills for the learner to ascertain. In addition to creative and theoretical input on my behalf I have to also think about the particular technical skills regarding technology that need to be addressed. Once this has been decided, I still need to know where to start and how to simplify the subject as well as the introduction to technology and software. This is to make sure the students at the level I am teaching can understand it. As Muffoletto (2001, p296) suggests; Ã¢â¬Å"educators need to be reflective, that is self-aware, engaged, and not passive in their relation to the discourse and practices relating to technology.Ã¢â¬ I know from experience in the classroom that I have to critically reflect on the idea of technology and software in order to keep up with the students that live in the ever-changing world. Just recently I was told I would be giving a class on Final Cut Pro X, an upgrade from the Final Cut Pro 7 that I had previously been familiar with. From previous lessons I have come to accept that some students may know more than I do about this software package, when I first went into the classroom I was very nervous about the students asking me questions and how I would find the answer for them as well as how I would deliver the lesson. At lunchtime I spoke to the teacher who teaches the class next door. He told me he too was not up to date, that it takes time to learn the new packages. Ã¢â¬Å"Use the studentsÃ¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"they probably know more than usÃ¢â¬ . His comment made meÃ feel at ease, as when a question was asked about the software that I was unsure of I asked the class. Ã¢â¬Å"Does anyone know how to do this?Ã¢â¬ There was always one who put up there hand and volunteered and when a question that no one could answer regarding transitionÃ¢â¬â¢s popped up, I gave the student something else to do, whilst I quickly browsed a two minute tutorial on Youtube and gave them the help they needed with my findings. (Reflecting In ActionÃ¢â¬â¢) This may not have been the best idea, but on reflection I would probably still do the same. For me to ask the other teacher to explain would have taken almost the same amount of time if not more, (not to mention the focus being taken from his own class) and to make the student wait until the next lesson would be unnecessary, slowing down the progress of work. However, in hindsight I can Ã¢â¬Å"Reflect On ActionÃ¢â¬ because looking back I should have explained the transition method to the re st of group, but I have made note of it now for my editing class. Delivering learning was one of my areas for development in regards to confidence and projection of my voice; I know from feedback that I sometimes focus the lesson too much on my own person and my delivery of the subject. As a new teacher I am very aware of the focus on me and it affects my confidence greatly. I found this especially hard for my micro teach in front of my peers and find I am very nervous in this environment, one itÃ¢â¬â¢s because I know they are observing me as a teacher, rather than following tasks as a student might and two they have a higher level of education, which makes me feel a little insecure. Reflecting on this has helped me look at it from their viewpoint and understand that we are all in a similar situation and all feel the same pressure. Taking the saying a Ã¢â¬Ëproblem shared is a problem halvedÃ¢â¬â¢ is true, given the benefit of hindsight I can look back and know that we were all nervous, so when it comes to a similar situation, (such as me knowing less than some of my students about a new software package) I can look at it from the perspective of Brookfield and not be afraid to seek answers from students and peers. In addition to this I have researched different methods of planning my lessons after receiving feedback suggesting I focus the attention on the class itself, instead of myself. I have looked into the perfect Ofsted Lesson In Moving English Forward, where we are told to simplify lesson plans and concentrate on important learning objectives. At the beginning of a lesson we are encouraged as educators to give the class aÃ starter activity to Ã¢â¬Å"stimulate curiosity and Ã¢â¬ ¦prepare the brain for learning.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ This is something that would take the focus from myself until I build my confidence. It also seems a good way to motivate learners and get them engaged with the subject before moving on to the more in depth, main body of a lesson. I have found a lack of motivation to be very prominent feature in the BTEC Media classes. The self-regulatory approach to the BTEC means that students have a coursework deadline to work to, for which they have a number of components to hand in. It is all too easy to give the student the work and hope that they complete it. I have found a lack of motivation in the BTEC Media classes and have found it hard to get students working towards handing in components of their work. In the lesson I try to give them positive feedback when they are doing well and provide them with areas of development. As a result they work hard to meet targets set for them. But giving them positive feedback in the classroom is not enough. It is one of the negatives of SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviouristÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. Since most of their practical work takes place in their own time, when they are out of the classroom in their own environment there is no positive reinforcement and so it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work. The same could be said for Photography. As when it comes to creating their own photographic projects, motivation is affected by Ã¢â¬Å"Judgement of their own abilities to complete a specific taskÃ¢â¬ (Bandura,2003). The studentÃ¢â¬â¢s self-efficacy is sometimes poor, which restrains a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. I ask myself; Ho w do I motivate a learner outside of the classroom? What can I do to make them want to engage with their chosen subject beyond the space of the classroom? How do I impart the necessary time management skills and contingency planning that is needed for their coursework? The answer is I am still learning and reflecting on this, through theoretical research and observing other teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s work. There are very few video productions or photo-shoots that go seemingly without any problems and students have encountered problems out of their control such as the weather or lighting. The students with high self-efficacy will work harder and be more persistent when trying to overcome obstacles. It is when motivating the students with lower self-efficacy when it becomes hard for me, as I do not yet have the experience. For this I have again taken the BrookfieldÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ approach and asked my peers how they do it. I have learned that they use strategies and donÃ¢â¬â¢t leave the skills of self-regulation up to the learner to grasp for themselves. They find the student often struggles with regulating their own study and motivating themselves to study. They rely on the facilitation of metacognition by setting tasks within the learning material and assignments to hand in, so that the coursework is broken down into compartments of the learning material. By having clear aims of what is needed from them in a lesson and deadlines within the coursework deadline as a whole, they can assess learning and build the students skills, such as scheduling, budgeting, trouble-shooting, contingency planning where needed (weather problems etc) which also falls in with time management. Zimmerman (2011), suggest there are three successive phases pictured below. With vocational or self-regulated projects the students usually learn whilst doing a task. The cyclic phase is a continuous circle of self-monitoring, a lot like the lenses of reflection. To meet set targets the student needs to continually self-observe, self-evaluate and continually assess their aims to make sure they are achievable and if they are not, reflecting on that and finding ways to trouble-shoot where necessary. In addition the use of SMART targets can be applied so that they can be met for motivational purposes. These can be done in the lesson so they can learn from each other (imitation) to promote a positive Ã¢â¬Ëreciprocal determinismÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bandura,2003). It was a teacher that also suggested the Cyclic phase to me and explained that sometimes a lack of work does not mean the student is de-motivated, but instead they may be overwhelmed and does not know where to start. By helping them break down course work and compartmentalising it for the first year of a BTEC and supervising it yourself, you give them the necessary skills to do the same in their second year without supervision, thus building towards a high self-efficacy and motivation. With the support of the media studies teacher I have been able to observe how clear aims can be set out using a tick sheet. The more aims a student meets the more ticks they have next to their name on the projection monitor. This has helped when reinforcing targets within the lesson. After giving positive feedback a new list of aims are set and we can reach those who have fewer ticks to find what we can do to facilitate them. On a short note; In addition to classroom motivation IÃ have tagged along to a few trips to film festivals and Q&AÃ¢â¬â¢s, the students are always buzzing after speaking to people within the industry and learning how they got to where they are, they realise that the goals are achievable if they want to work hard enough to grasp them. It is something to think about in the future when planning my own trips with students. In the first module of my teaching practice I have learned a lot about myself as a teacher by applying the reflective process. During our personal lives we reflect on how we handle certain situations so that negative circumstances are not repeated and apart from in the medical occupation we donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to do this in a professional working capacity, instead of taking a step back and thinking how did this happen? How can I make sure it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t again? We tend to repeat the same or similar mistakes. Overall the self-reflection process has been an eye opener, I did start off a little sceptical on just how important it was to be reflective but I have to say I did start off not knowing how to be effectual in my refection process and how valuable that is before making judgements about my teaching capabilities. I found that by using BrookfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s model of reflection and observing my practice from different perspectives, I can now look at my teaching objectively I have found that the constructive feedback for my micro teaches and the feedback I have received from teachers in the classroom have really helped and informed my reflection for an action plan to improve my teaching methods. Whilst I am happy with some elements of my teaching such as the visual aspects and my use of scaffolding, I had been unaware that I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t projecting my voice and that my body placement was sometimes bad. Being made aware of these factors by observers highlighting them, is invaluable and will aid me when I come to do presentations and lesson planning, as I can incorporate this into my practice. As I have previously stated, I have problems with my confidence and so with that in mind I aim to focus my lessons on the class, especially at the beginning of a lesson. In doing this I will be able to gage the students and if I feel comfortable bringing the focus back to myself, I can. I aim to do this gradually until I have enough confidence not only in myself but also my ability to lead a class. In regards to Motivation in the vocational BTEC Media and project led assessments that might crop up in Photography and film, I aim to use ZimmermanÃ¢â¬â¢s model and methods that other teachers implement in their classrooms. This is a learning process for me,Ã which I will reflect upon to make the necessary progress needed, but applying theory to my practice should only help it whilst IÃ¢â¬â¢m learning the ropes. (Plato and Aristotle, 2005) both defined Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ as performing to the best of your ability and that being moral and reflective were stages of ethical development to reach a Socratic intellectualism which is Ã¢â¬Å"One will do what is right or best just as soon as one truly understands what is right or bestÃ¢â¬ (Socrates,2011) and to understand we must keep reflecting, as the situation is ever changing. BIBLIOGRAPHY ARISTOTLE (2005), The Art of Rhetoric, trans. Hugh Lawson-Tancred London: Penguin classics EFKLIDES, A (2011), Interactions of Metacognition With Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model. The American Psychological association: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group Available online at http://www4.ncsu.edu/~jlnietfe/Metacog_Articles_files/Efklides%20(2011).pdf [Accessed 12th November 2014] BANDURA, A (2003), BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s social cognitive theory: an introduction, Davidson Films DVD (Available from IOE Library) BROOKFIELD, S (1995), Becoming a critically reflective teacher, San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers BRUNNER, D. (1987), Inquiry and Reflection, Framing Narrative Practice in education, Albany: State University of New York Press DEWEY, J (1997), How we think, Republication of original works 1910. USA: Dover Publications, Inc GIBBS (1988), Model of reflection Available online at http://pdp.northampton.ac.uk/PG_Files/pg_reflect3.htm [Accessed 12th November 2014] MUFFOLETTO, R (2001), Education and Technology, Critical and Reflective Practices, USA: Hampton Press Inc. OFSTED Ã¢â¬â Moving English Forward Available online at www.ofsted.gov.uk/sites/Ã¢â¬ ¦andÃ¢â¬ ¦/Moving%20English%20forward.doc [Accessed 12th November2014] PETTY, G. (2010), A Practical guide, 4th Ed. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes LTD RACE, P (2014), Making Learning Happen, a guide to Post-Compulsory education, London: Sage Publications LTD SchÃ ¶n, D. (1987), The Reflective Practitioner, Towards a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the professions, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers SOCRATES (2011) Socratic intellectualism. Available online at http://philosophyfaculty.ucsd.edu/faculty/rickless/Rickless/PHIL100_files/Intellectualism3.pdf [Accessed 16th November 2014] ZIMMERMAN, B. (2011), SCIENCE WATCH Zimmerman discusses self-regulated learning process, Emerging research frontÃ¢â¬â¢s commentary Available online at http://archive.sciencewatch.com/dr/erf/2011/11decerf/11decerfZimm/ [Accessed 14th November 2014]
. SWOT Matrix |STRENGTHS |WEAKNESS | |FEATURES OF USB WATCH |MARKETING SERVICES AGENCIES | |As the USB watch has the USB the watch can also have an alarm and |As the product is new to the market it would be difficult to | |timer. increase the sales because people still donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about the | | |product and if they would accept the product. | |DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRODUCT |FORMS OF USB | |The product is not yet known to most of the people and making it |The product remains vulnerable to the possibility that innovation | |distributed in Alabang especially in Festival Mall and Alabang |may falter over time. |Town Center that are commonly known to them. The product can be | | |sold at CD-R King or any similar stalls. | | |FASHIONABLE WATCH | | |The USB watch has different styles and colors that make the wearer| | |stylish. | |OPPORTUNITIES |THREATS | |JOINT VENTURES OR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES |WEAK BRAND NAME | |Joining CD-R king and other similar stalls that allow the product|As a new in the industry in producing a USB watch competing with | |to be introduced in the market and knowing that they are easily |a known brand like Timex. |found on malls. | | |MATERIALS ARE RECYCLED |FAST CHANGING ENVIRONMENT | |If the product can be made through recycled parts of a computer |As the people are changing what they think would be needed in | |it could make our product in a cheaper cost. |making their life convenient and having many alternatives in the | | |form of USB like pens. | |FINANCIAL CRISIS | | |As the economy slows the purchasing power of people would decline| | |and they would prefer buying their primary need. |