Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Art Institute of Chicago Essay Example For Students

The Art Institute of Chicago Essay When I went to the Art Institute of Chicago there was so much to take in and so much to look at. I honestly did not know where to look first or what to observe first. A lot of the arts were really intriguing and really fascinating to look at. There was a lot of diversity and obviously there are tons of different perfected techniques all within this Art Institute and it was really cool to see in person. It was cool seeing the big lion out in front of the Institute, I have seen that lion before but I never knew what it was in front of. We will write a custom essay on The Art Institute of Chicago specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The inside of the Art Institute was massive and it was really pretty inside and everything was laid out in a specific way. Everything seemed to be grouped by their cultures and societies and you could see the vast difference between the different cultures. The different wings of the building held artifacts from different time periods which I found interesting. There was a floor that had all the contemporary pieces of art and modern art. I also noticed that there was a lot of natural light in the building due to the many windows. All of the art was really spaced out and there is a lot of floor room to move in. My favorite piece that I picked out is a painting by Grant Wood and the piece is called American Gothic. Its a picture of a man and a woman who seem to be farmers and they are wearing clothes that look like they are from the 20s. The woman is looking in the distance or at something and the man is looking straight forward. We really cannot tell what they are thinking or feeling in this piece. Maybe the artist who made this piece wanted to meet their own personal expression through their personality and feelings that they tried to portray in this piece. Maybe this work is meant to show us two farmers who do not necessary like farming? I say this because looking/seeing this piece we can observe that they are not smiling. The man and the woman have no expression and its hard to portray their feelings. How we as individuals evaluate this work differs from person to person, from culture to culture and from age to age. Both of these individuals could be tired or had a long day of work and do not have the energy to smile. The mans eyes, which are looking dead forward, seemed to burn a hole in my eyes from the perspective as maybe his eyes are telling a story. We can observe that this man is a hard worker because he is holding a pitchfork and he looks like the classification of a true American. The purpose and the function of this work can vary from many things on what it is trying portray or inform us. It could have been made to tell us things, embellish our lives or showing us who we really are. Or rather this work could have been made to show us the true inner beauty of farmers and to help us develop a greater respect for these people. Also, the mans face shows exhaustion from maybe a long day of working when living during that time period was not all too easy. You had to work hard for everything you received in life during the 1900s. This is true for today as well but technology and advancements had helped make a lot of our lifes easier. A lot of the elements in this piece help achieve visual unity and Grant Wood did a good job accomplishing this. Unity is one of the seven key principals of design and it gives the appearance or condition of oneness. We can see the man and woman work as a unit and they are one although we cannot tell if they are married, I feel like it is already implied to a certain degree. .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 , .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .postImageUrl , .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 , .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:hover , .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:visited , .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:active { border:0!important; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:active , .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198 .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua9e35791154b338f869e0513c5a84198:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Artificial Intelligence EssayRanging from what they are wearing and the style of materials all piece together. They are wearing farmers clothes in front of a farmers house and the style of their materials and textures give the illusion of unity. The old fashion life style with the mans glasses all the way to the womans hair style all seem like they belong together. There is also a sense of unity with the colors the artist chose because they are darker and more plain colors that were more popular in this time period. There is a clear emphasis in this piece which draws our attention to the man and the woman leaving the rest in the background. The focal point in this work very well could be the mans eyes because he is looking directly at us. Its the specific spot or figure that draws our attention in a piece. The texture that goes along with this work makes it seem very realistic and it portrays even to the detail of the wrinkles on their faces. All of these parts and details helped to bring the piece together in unity. Unity also seems to be portrayed in this piece by achieving a sense of balance and directional force that seem to interplay between the opposing forces. Color is a also a huge component when looking/seeing this art work. For example the man has brown eyes which seem to be surrounded with lighter colors of his white skin and pigments. With this being done the effects really draw our eyes to this mans pupils which are most indefinably staring right at the viewer. The artist achieved an emphasis to the mans eyes the focal point by putting him to the right where the top of the roof seems to end. Also I feel like the big window on the house/farm is placed right in the middle of the picture that seems to point up at the roof which eventually leads the viewer to the mans eyes. There is a depth to this picture that we can see in the available space and this is accomplished by using a scale and accurately using size relation of one thing to another. The objects in this work that seem closer are bigger to the viewer rather than the smaller objects that are viewed to be in the distance. In regards to this mans pitch fork we can also see a sign of overlapping which gives us the illusion that the pitchfork is the closest to us. The man and the woman are in an essence overlapping the house in the fact that you cannot see the part of the house in which they are standing in front of. He also used texture and color to achieve the sense of overlapping and making the objects that are farther away in the distance not as vivid. It is clear that it is way easier to see the colors on the mans and womans clothing due to the fact the color seems to fade out the further in depth into the picture. To wrap things up about this piece the artist used many dominant shapes that seem to be organic in the way they are irregular and free flowing to the viewer. Every shape that has to do with the house in the background is geometric by the rectangles and the square windows. The lines in this piece seem to be dominant and they are contour to the fact that they outline a specific form. Through dissecting this work of art we evaluate one thing over another for appreciation and specialness of something that we are truly evaluating. Overall a really interesting piece of work that has a lot of base and foundation to it that really has a lot of significant meaning behind it that they artist in trying to portray.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Pat Parker Associates †Harvard Business School Case Study

Pat Parker Associates – Harvard Business School Case Study Free Online Research Papers Critical Issues The Pat Parker Associates case, written in 1995 by Mursten in the Harvard Business Review raises several points that should be considered when dealing with intellectual property matters. We need to clearly understand who owns the copyright to a report prepared by a firm for a client. The fair use defense to a copyright infringement can be complex and difficult to prove. The work for hire doctrine needs to be applied to the case in order to assign copyright ownership. Using sound business judgment in negotiations and following a code of ethics should have more weight on decisions than the legal implications. If something is legal to conduct, then this doesn’t mean it is an ethical action. Ignorance is not always a viable defense for permitting a civil wrong to take place. Questions need to be asked in order for individuals to make the most informed decisions. These critical issues will all come into play as we take a closer look at the Parker case and are able to draw some conclusions. Campaign Research Consultant Parker’s business operations are basically a fact-finding service. His firm researches political candidates and reports back on their voting history, prime and co-sponsored bills, and attendance records. It also looks at financial disclosures, gift reports, lawsuits, general public records, and non-legislative activities (Mursten, 1995). Information is gathered, organized, and presented to the client. The actions that the client decides to take based on the information gathered is independent of the work that the consultant was paid to do. Opinions are not generated, but inconsistencies and weaknesses are drawn out. Parker’s firm can also be utilized to consult on political advertising campaigns while they are in the development stages (Mursten, 1995). Use of the Research Report Created for Dale Jackson Parker had no way of knowing if the research he compiled for Dale Jackson was ever used. Jackson decided not to publicly address any of the voting disparities of Paine (Mursten, 1995). This did not mean that his campaign discarded the research report. He could have used the information to prepare for a debate or could have used it in general discussions he had with other legislators throughout the election process. Sometimes you just want to know what your opponent’s weaknesses are so you are equipped in case you are caught off guard with the media. It would also help to be prepared if your opponent decided to attack your own voting record. You are armed with ammunition but don’t always have to use it. In my opinion, reading the information that was provided in the report meant that Jackson’s campaign used the research. Use of a Copy of the Research Report by the SATL Parker never asked what the State Academy of Trial Lawyers (SATL) intended to use the research report for. What did they want the purchase to accomplish? Since ethics came into play regarding his final decision, he had the right to ask questions that would help him make that decision. The SATL would have the right to decline to give a reason. Parker was forced to speculate that the SATL would use the report to be aware of any potential criticisms of Paine. Their intentions were likely noble as they prepared to work on his next campaign. Parker had no way of knowing or controlling how they would ultimately use the information provided. Legal Implications of Political Campaign Actions It would be illegal for the SATL to give the research report to the Paine campaign. Cash gifts up to $250,000 could be bundled from 500 individuals and be considered a legal campaign contribution. According to the state campaign financing statutes, giving in-kind gifts in excess of $500 was a criminal action (Mursten, 1995). In-kind gifts did not qualify for the bundling exception. If Parker sold the research to the SATL knowing that they would give it to Paine, he could be implicated as aiding in the crime and held accountable for a misdemeanor (Mursten, 1995). It would be possible for the SATL to in turn sell the research to the Paine campaign. It this occurred, the transaction would be indicated in the official spending reports. The SATL could also donate the research to the Republican Party. The Republican Party could then donate the research to the campaign of the Republican nominee. According to Mursten, â€Å"Under state campaign financing law, registered political p arties were exempt from the $500 contribution limit.† This would likely provide a loophole to the campaign gift policies. Parker could not be held liable if Paine used the research information to violate the new Florida Voluntary Code of Fair Campaign Practices. If Paine publicly announced his support for the code and then violated it with research conducted by Parker’s firm, then Paine should be held accountable. Parker also could not legally distribute a copy of the postcard from the Jackson campaign since his firm did not create the marketing piece. He merely reviewed the postcard for accuracy and had no rights to the product. Every functional area in the business world has legal exposure (Baumer, 2001). Each business needs to identify what their largest exposures are and determine how they can best be contained. Copyright Law The Agreement for Campaign Research and Consulting Services limited the use of the research report by the client for a specific period of time coinciding with a specific election campaign (Exhibit 8). The Agreement did not limit the future use of the research report by Parker’s firm. Since it did not specifically limit the use of the research, then Parker interpreted the contract to read that his firm could use it again for hire. Parker also felt that the campaign could not claim the copyright since a copyright disclosure was omitted on the document. The Copyright Act of 1976 does not require a copyright symbol to appear on a work in order for it to be covered by copyright protection. The Act only requires the work to be original and fixed (Wikepedia, 2006). The question regarding who owns the copyright still must be answered. The Agreement and disclosure statements on the report address when the report can be used and who has the right to use it (Mursten, 1995). These documents never mention that Parker’s firm retains the original copyright to the work and can republish it in the future. Because these statements don’t exist, there can be considerable debate regarding who should own the copyright. Work For Hire As a general rule the author of the work owns the copyright. The Copyright Act of 1976 contains an exception called the â€Å"work for hire† doctrine. If the â€Å"work for hire† doctrine can be proven in a specific case, then the person or company that the work was created for would own the copyright (Developer, 2006). The work for hire doctrine applies when an employee creates a product within the scope of his/her employment or in a situation where a certain type of work is specially ordered or commissioned by which an express agreement is considered for hire (Developer, 2006). Since Parker is an outside consultant or a contractor, and not an employee, the â€Å"work for hire† doctrine would not apply under the first part of the test. The work was specifically ordered, it is new, and it could be classified under the compilation category in the Copyright Act of 1976 if there were an agreement that expressly stated that the work was made for hire (Developer, 2006). Since this statement did not exist, the second part of the test also favors Parker’s interpretation. This scenario would not be considered work for hire(,) and Parker would retain the copyrights. The copyright ownership issue should always be addressed with the assistance of legal counsel in preparing the agreement. Transfer of Ownership It would be possible for the Jackson campaign to transfer the ownership of the copyright if the contract were negotiated as a work for hire. They could even authorize the sale of the copyright and reap the financial rewards of the transaction. It would be difficult to determine if the Jackson campaign would easily give up the copyright or refuse the request. Since they are no longer in the political circuit, they may be willing to share the information. On the other hand, they may feel that the information would create a disadvantage for the Democratic Party and decline the transfer request. Fair Use Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the fair use of copyrighted work does not infringe a copyright. Fair use is generally permitted for criticism, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research purposes (Wikipedia, 2006). Fair use is further determined based on the character of the use, nature of the copyrighted work, amount of the original work used and the effect it will have on the demand for the original work (Wikipedia, 2006). If it were determined that the Jackson campaign owned the copyright, Parker could argue that the reproduction of the research reports fall under fair use of a copyrighted work. The main use would be for research purposes and would not be disclosed publicly. An individual should have a right to obtain a copy of materials written about their own character provided discretion is used and public criticism of the work is not made. It is legal for Parker to resell the report, but not sell the postcards. Ethical Issues Parker felt uncertain about the request for information soon after receiving the phone call from the SATL. He questioned if he should even be taking on the contract. Parker’s gut feeling told him that something didn’t feel right about the request (Mursten, 1995). As a rule of ethics, if you immediately question an action, then you should spend a considerable amount of time conducting research in order to justify the action you decide to take. If you feel uneasy about performing a service or action, then you have the right to turn down the business without providing a detailed explanation. Parker also felt like he had nobody to turn to for advice with his firm (Mursten, 1995). He felt pressured as the sole decision maker of the firm to make the right decision. I don’t see anything wrong with the SATL’s request to purchase old research. I do have a concern about the price that they are willing to pay for the data. They are willing to pay full price for research that has already been conducted and paid for by another client. Are they coming in with a high offer in order to deter Parker from considering the ethical and legal implications of their request? Appropriate Ethical Action When the request for information was made Parker, he should have replied that he would retrieve the old contract and get back in touch with the SATL regarding his ability to meet their request. Parker should have taken a few days to consider all of his options and seek advice. Since he had nobody to turn to within the company for guidance, he should have leveraged his extensive political network. He should have been able to identify a few individuals that worked in legislature that would be able to provide an unbiased opinion on the subject. Parker should also revise his standard client agreement in order to clearly state who retains the copyright for the product produced. He needs to eliminate any confusion and can work with an attorney to draft the agreement. I do not feel that he should resell the report to the SATL since they are likely to use it to aid the Republican candidate. Conclusion Parker needed to ask more questions regarding how the research would be used and whom it would be disseminated to within the political arena. In order to make a well-informed decision, he needed to have all of his concerns addressed. If he were not able to obtain answers to all of his questions, then he should have declined the offer. If he were comfortable that selling the research would not violate any copyright laws, state legislature, or prior contracts, then he had an ethical duty to sell it for a fair price. He has an ethical duty not to sell the research. In my opinion, $25,000 is not a fair asking price for a report that already exists and would take minimal time and effort to reproduce. An asking price of $10,000 would be more appropriate for all parties involved. Copies of the postcards created for the Jackson campaign should not be included since a different marketing consultant created them. It would be copyright infringement to sell the postcards. Parker has wor ked hard to establish his firm as the â€Å"Party’s choice† for Democrats. (Mursten, 1995). He has a loyal customer base that values the work that he has conducted over the years. He would get negative press if word leaked out that he sold a report originally contracted by a Democrat to the Republicans. He would be disloyal to his former client, whether anyone knew about it or not. It would look like he was abandoning that party in favor of financial rewards. According to Baumer, managers should be mindful of the legal pitfalls that can confront their company. Parker should be able to get through this scenario on all of the legal technicalities. He does retain the copyright ownership since the work for hire doctrine does not apply. He could still be challenged to defend his position. I don’t think it is worth the time or effort to put up a fight to defend these actions. He could get sued and have to spend money on attorneys and time in court. His free time is worth more to him than the price of the contract. He should weigh ethics above all else and decline the request. He would not lose any clients by turning down the business and his reputation in the industry would still be intact. Parker has always worked for Democrats and the client who paid for the report was a Democratic organization. The SATL likely supports the Republican candidate. This puts Parker in a conflict of interest position. He has fostered loyalty to the Democrats, and resale of the report to the SATL would appear disloyal. References: Baumer/Poindexter: Cyberlaw E-Commerce (2001). Ch. 1 Developer. developerdotstar.com. Who Owns Your Software? Software Copyright and the Work for Hire Doctrine. 2006. developerdotstar.com/mag/articles/daniels_softwarecopyright.html Exhibit 8. Mursten, D.B. (1995). Agreement. Pat Parker Associates. Harvard Business School Publishing. Mursten, D. B. (1995). Pat Parker Associates. 9-393-059. Harvard Business School Publishing. Wikipedia.com (2006). Copyright Act of 1976. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Copyright_Act_of_1976 Research Papers on Pat Parker Three Concepts of PsychodynamicCapital PunishmentResearch Process Part OneStandardized TestingPETSTEL analysis of IndiaGenetic EngineeringEffects of Television Violence on Children

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Networking and Public Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Networking and Public Relations - Essay Example Its role in enhancing awareness of an organization’s public image is normally magnified when used in concurrence with public relations. In this regard, the objective of the essay is to explain how networking is used in conjunction with public relations. Likewise, the discourse would provide at least two (2) examples of how successful entrepreneurs have used public relations and networking to their business advantage. An organization and its products or services can come to the attention of the public through being newsworthy. The public is a general market that deserves to receive facts and information on what the organization offers and thus, further spreads the information to others who were not initially recipients of relevant corporate information. Public relations are thus a critical communications tool that organizations use to enhance their corporate image. According to Lancaster, public relations was defined by the Institute of Public Relations (IPR) as â€Å"the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and it’s public’† (n.d., par. 8). Networking is an instrument used in conjunction with public relations to ensure the swift development of contacts and expand the reach of information to more people at a shorted amount of time. In an exhibit, for example, an organization can present a new product offer which would be launched in the market. The product could be an innovative health drink which would significantly lower blood sugar and cholesterol at the same time. It invites various stakeholders, customers, suppliers, media, and local or state representatives to view the product and to hear testimonies of those who benefitted from it . As emphasized by Lancaster, â€Å"there is often a strong ‘entertainment’ component to exhibitions with stands offering complementary

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Leadership week6 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Leadership week6 - Essay Example As a leader, one has a role of ensuring there is collaboration in case of conflict and solution to the actual problem, mutual trust, reinforcing respect and one earns a good reputation as a mediator. Besides collaborating, I have realized to manage and solve conflict through withdrawal and compromising. Both parties need to get satisfaction by deliberating on the issue at hand causing the conflict. Similarly, one has to withdraw from the conflict in order to end the disagreement. These are new skills acquired because of the course as the contents provided me with the required knowledge of managing conflict as a leader. Conflict resolutions tips at work place documented by Huff (2008) in his interview are very important in giving a clue of the expected. As a student, I found it educating and would share it in the class for other students to grasp on the process involved in managing and resolving conflict. Despite the challenges, which come because of conflict, it is essential in developing moves forward as it help in realizing the weaknesses leaders have in their

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Public opinion on health care reform in the United States Research Paper

Public opinion on health care reform in the United States - Research Paper Example There have been many efforts to impose some kind of health care reform in the United States, and the aim of this essay is to examine the public opinion of the most recent effort by current President, Barack Obama, to change the way the system works in the US. The hypothesis is that most people asked, using a short survey written on the Qualtrics system, would have a favorable opinion of the current reforms suggested, particularly in regards to the reform of the private health insurance market and aiding those with long-term chronic conditions in qualifying for affordable health insurance policies. This topic is particularly important because healthcare is something that is required by every individual at some point in their lives, and thus this issue affects everyone in the United States. It is also particularly timely because of the current economic recession (Blendon and Benson, â€Å"Public Opinion, the Deep Recession†, 2010), meaning that health insurance premiums are out of reach for more people than ever. This is part of the reason why we have hypothesized that the public opinion will be generally positive concerning this issue. Existing research on the topic has suggested that people are of generally mixed views about the reforms. We can see from evidence provided by Zis, Jacobs and Shapiro (1996) that showed public opinion on healthcare before the reforms were suggested that is particularly difficult to find a common ground between politicians and the public on this issue. More recent research suggests that public opinion on the specifics of the healthcare system as proposed by and passed by Obama are mixed (Blendon and Benson, â€Å"Public Opinion at the Time†, 2010). This is also shown in evidence from Gelman, Lee and Ghitza (2010). This article goes on to state that the majority of reform opposition comes from those within a higher income bracket and those over 65. This has led to the formation of the third hypothesis being tested by th is questionnaire. This research proposes that it will in fact be those over the age of 40 that will be more opposed to the healthcare reforms, although the age responses will be grouped to allow us to see if this statement will back up Gelman, Lee and Ghitza (2010). The first hypothesis will be testing the current thought in research that people have mixed views on the topic of healthcare reform. Existing research has also shown that people are in agreement with some of the pieces of the healthcare reform, and it is as a whole that it causes controversy (Brodie et al., 2010). This research covered the topic from a more historical perspective and additionally used information from those leaving the polling stations. This meant that people were more likely to be volatile in the opinions they expressed. The theory put forward by this research is that people are generally happy with certain aspects of the reform, and the questionnaire will question the opinion of people on the specific topic of extending Medicaid coverage to test this theory. Finally, there has been a lot of research on whether the healthcare reforms benefit certain ethnic groups and as such they show a more positive response to the laws, for example the work by Tesler and Sears (2010). This has been widely debated and as such is not a gap in the research and will not be included in the hypotheses. The three testable hypotheses are, then: 1. Individuals questioned will generally express positive views (as indicated by the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Facilities operations management in lloyds tsb

Facilities operations management in lloyds tsb What is Facilities Operations Management Operations management focuses on carefully managing the processes to produce and distribute products and services. Usually, small businesses dont talk about â€Å"operations management†, but they carry out the activities that management schools typically associate with the phrase â€Å"operations management.† Major, overall activities often include product creation, development, production and distribution. Related activities include managing purchases, inventory control, quality control, storage, logistics and evaluations. A great deal of focus is on efficiency and effectiveness of processes. Therefore, operations management often includes substantial measurement and analysis of internal processes. Ultimately, the nature of how operations management is carried out in an organization depends very much on the nature of products or services in the organization, for example, retail, manufacturing, wholesale, etc. Every organisation has an operations function, whether or not it is called ‘operations. The goal or purpose of most organisations involves the production of goods and/or services. Introduction Lloyds TSB Lloyds TSB is a famous and well-known name in United Kingdom especially in Scotland. Lloyds TSB itself was generate in 1995 when the Lloyds Bank and Trustee savings Banks was consent to merge the operations, that time it was the 2nd largest bank in the UK. People also riley for savings BANKS in Scottish heritage. So the Lloyds TSB brand was launched in July 1999. It has 185 branches in Scotland, 3000 branches in all over the UK and internationally 500 offices in 47 countries these all of them backed by the command of the Lloyds Banking Group. This bank has approximately 63,000 employees. (Source: http://www.lloydstsb.com/about_ltsb/lloyds_bank.asp [visited on 11-01-2010]) Responsibilities of facilities managers for staff engaged in facilities operations DAYS AND HOURS OF OPERATION. It shall be the responsibility of the Bank manager to comply with the terms of the permit or the bid announcement regarding the days and hours designated for the facility to be open for business. It is required that the Bank manager be present at least five days and a minimum of thirty (30) hours each week; however, it is not necessary for the manager to be present during all of the hours that the facility is open. Exceptions to this provision must be approved in writing by the appropriate Business Enterprises Supervisor. In the absence of the manager, it is essential that a qualified employee be on duty to ensure that all customers needs are being met and that the facility is otherwise being operated in compliance with all rules and regulations which govern its operation. Managers responsibilties in Operational Aspects In Lloyds TSB Focuses on the line manager as a key stakeholder in the human resource Management process and operational management. Considers the general trend towards devolvement of human resource activities and operational activities to line specialists. Examines issues involved in devolving training, development to the line and operations management with specific emphasis on the potential difficulties. Recent empirical evidence is represented. Concludes that the shape of things to come, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a sharing of responsibilities between the specialist and the line. (Source: Noreen Heraty, Michael Morley) Explain using example responsibility the facilities manager hastowardscustomers using the facility Administrative services managersplan, coordinate, and direct a broad range of services that allow organizations to operate efficiently. They might, for example, coordinate space allocation, facilities maintenance and operations, and major property and equipment procurement. They also may oversee centralized operations that meet the needs of multiple departments, such as information and data processing, mail, materials scheduling and distribution, printing and reproduction, records management, telecommunications management, security, recycling, wellness, and transportation services. Administrative services managers also ensure that contracts, insurance requirements, and government regulations and safety standards are followed and up to date. They may examine energy consumption patterns, technology usage, and personal property needs to plan for their long-term maintenance, modernization, and replacement. Imapct of FACILITY Opeartions on the Bank the part of the treasury organisation that administers and supports the trading activities of the treasury front office. The back offices main functions are to process, confirm, verify, settle, reconcile and record financial market transactions. The back office is also responsible for ensuring that the organisations treasury management policy and controls are followed as well as ensuring general compliance with rules and regulations. In a more general sense, the term refers to all administrative functions that support an organisation and includes areas such as payroll and expenses, accounts payable, accounts receivable and accounting. Bank Relationship Management Represents one of the most important activities of the treasury function as banks are an important corporate resource and are significant financial stakeholders in an organisation/company. Bank relationship management has two main functions: To select and appoint banks according to the companys funding, cash management and risk management requirements. To maintain a consistent dialogue with bank counterparties and to inform them of corporate developments so as to ensure that business is being effected in a manner that is satisfactory to both parties, and that these banks are receptive to the companys needs at all times. Assess the Saturatory Regulations To Facility Operations Statutory regulation exists to protect the publicagainst the risk of poor practice. It works by settingagreed standards of practice and competenceby registering those who are competent to practise and restricting the use of specified protected titles to those who are registered. The Government legislation protects seven titles:Clinical Psychologist,Health Psychologist,Counselling Psychologist,Educational Psychologist,Occupational Psychologist,Sport and Exercise Psychologist, and Forensic Psychologist. To operational managers need to tell to his staff about rules and regulations e.g., definitions, permit requirements e.g., general, inspection or investigation, references, permit requirements, exceptions to the standard; about enforcing regulations e.g., probation, consultation, inspections etc; about enforcing actions e.g. general, violation classification etc; about enforcing action e.g. general, inservice training, health statics etc; about reporting procedure e.g. emergency call number, medical call numbers etc; about fire presentations e.g. arrangements for fire departments response, inspection, evacuation plan, fire response training etc; about facility accommodation, mobile units, severability and general etc etc. Health and Safety rules The fscility operational manager is obliged to comply with the Health and Safety at Work Act, Carry out a thorough risk assessment. Draw up a health and safety policy (in writing if the employ are five or more people). Ensure your workplace meets minimum standards of comfort and cleanliness. Record injuries, accidents and diseases in an accident book. Health and Safety Documentation Required The Lloyds TSB Bank have more than five and that includes the owners and any part-time staff thats why the bank need written healthand safety documentation. The Law requires that you have a written healthand safety policy statement. Linked to this statement will be the arrangements that exist with the bank for dealing with healthand safety. Healthy and Safety Policies   Ã‚  Ã‚  Health Safety Policy StatementsGeneral statement, and policy examples, including contractors   Ã‚  Ã‚  Standard Health Safety and Risk Assessment formsAnnual audit, risk assessment forms plans   Ã‚  Ã‚  Environmental FormsPolicy, assessment checklist action plan and waste disposal note   Ã‚  Ã‚  First Aid, Accidents and DiseaseAccident, investigation, treatment and Riddor report forms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Fire SafetyRisk Assessment forms, policy and procedures and records   Ã‚  Ã‚  Smoke Free, Drugs and Alcohol PoliciesUp-to-date policies governing smoking, drugs and alcohol.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Safe DrivingSave Driving Policy, Guidance for Employees who Drive for Work and Vehicle Checklist   Ã‚  Ã‚  Display Screen EquipmentQuestionnaire, identification eyesight records and risk assessment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Chemical and Hazardous Substances COSHHSafety data, risk assessment and action plan forms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Personal Protection Equipment PPERisk survey and acknowledgement of use   Ã‚  Ã‚  Manual HandlingAssessment checklist control forms, employee assessments and action plan   Ã‚  Ã‚  Equipment MachineryMaintenance records, and risk assessment forms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Hot WorkRisk assessment, action plan and permit forms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Asbestos Containing MaterialsInspection, assessment, action plan, register, control and disposal forms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Disability Discrimination ActAccess audits, checklist, control and action plan forms   Ã‚  Ã‚  Maternity Health SafetyExpectant mother letter and risk assessment form Adding more confidence for maintaining communication to international and national business The key financial functions of international and national banking online, allowing your accounts to monitor, operate and control the transaction aspects of your international and national banking more closely and more effectively than before. Services are offered as individual modules, allowing you to select only those you need. Our international and national services specialists understand that at any rate, clients can keep in touch with transaction, e-commerce is playing an increasingly major role. We can offer you a more efficient way of accessing our range of trade services products via Online Services, designed to improve speed and accuracy for your accounts. Online Trade Services will enable you to manage four main trade service activities online: Import and Export Letters of Credit. Guarantees. Import and Export Collections. Standby Letters of Credit Issued and Received. Controle and Procedure Autorization, autority limits, cash flow forecast, confirmation, counterparty exposure credit, dealing procedure, Electronic Funds Transfer System, execution, Financial Risk Sensitivity Analysis, mandates, recording, reporting, settlement, system log, treasurey control, treasurey management policies, unatorize transaction, and valuation of derivatives do controle and procedure operate by facilities operation manager in the Lloyds TSB Bank. In the capital markets asset back securities, accredited values, accretion, accretion bond, accrual bond,accured interest, advance refunding, agency transaction, agreement among underwriters, all or none, allotment, analyst, arbitrage,ask price, equity ratio, auction market, back to back market, bear transaction, best mid, block trade and bond insurance etc etc are being handled in the Lloyds TSB Bank by the operational facility managers. Facility Managers support to effective Building Management The support of administrative facility management through information technology is identified asComputer Aided Facility Management(CAFM), Facilities Management Systems, or Computerized Maintenance Management Systems. Because computer has become the part of our social and as well as in job activities including banking. Administrative services managersplan, coordinate, and direct a broad range of services that allow Banks to operate efficiently. They might, for example, coordinate space allocation, facilities maintenance and operations, and major property and equipment procurement. They also may oversee centralized operations that meet the needs of multiple departments, such as information and data processing, mail, materials scheduling and distribution, printing and reproduction, records management, telecommunications management, security, recycling, wellness, and transportation services. Administrative services managers also ensure that contracts, insurance requirements, and government regulations and safety standards are followed and up to date. They may examine energy consumption patterns, technology usage, and personal property needs to plan for their long-term maintenance, modernization, and replacement. The resposibilty of facility managers is to trained the banking staff, ensure the smooth accounts and mortageges operations; describe to the jobs to their employees etc. Quality and Effectiveness of Facilities Operations Senior executives and facilities managers can speak the same languageLean language! Savvy facility managers are being recognized as contributors to overall quality and profitability, and an integral part of core service delivery and manufacturing operations. managers who initiate disciplined processes are in a position to spend their budgets instead of defend them, and have the data available to confirm facilities impact on mainstream operations. It is up to facility managers to think, plan, act, and communicate in an entrepreneurial fashion. Implementing defined strategies and structures to increase quality and productivity in facility operations and maintenance, and add value to the enterprise, takes a significant, long-term commitment. Quality and Effectiveness of Facilities Operations Analysis Operations management focuses on carefully managing the processes to produce and distribute products and services. In the operations management major, overall activities often include product creation, development, production and distribution. So Costs can be substantial to store and move inventory. Innovative methods, such as Just-in-Time inventory control, can save costs and move products and services to customers more quickly. A management consulting firm specializing in facility management, real estate, operations, and administrative planning and management. For consulting assignments we match our team and services to client requirements in order to ascertain innovative solutions for our clients facility and administrative needs. We conduct a study, perform an analysis, and present an assessment with action plans, options, schedules and budget. Determining the current status provides a benchmark from which future achievements can be measured. Conclusion Facilities management operations is one of the fastest growing professions in the UK. Facilities managers are responsible formany of the buildings and services which support businesses and other types of organisation. Operations Management deals with the design and management of products, processes, services and supply chains. It considers the acquisition, development, and utilization of resources that firms need to deliver the goods and services their clients want.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Othello, the Image Machine Essay -- Othello essays

Othello, the Image Machine  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚   Shakespeare’s drama Othello presents a full panoply of diverse imagery that cannot be described briefly. Let’s spend some attention on this subject which has so many examples in the play.    Alvin Kernan’s â€Å"Othello: an Introduction† explains how the â€Å"symbolic geography† imagery of the play create a particular image of space and time:    We can begin to see this pattern in the â€Å"symbolic geography† of the play. Every play, or work of art, creates its own particular image of space and time, its own symbolic world. The outer limits of the world of Othello are defined by the Turks – the infidels,   the unbelievers, the â€Å"general enemy† as the play calls them – who, just over the horizon, sail back and forth trying to confuse and trick the Christians in order to invade their dominions and destroy them. Out beyond the horizon, reported but unseen, are also those â€Å"anters vast and deserts idle† of which Othello speaks. Out there is a land of â€Å"rough quarries, rocks and hills whose heads touch heaven† inhabited by â€Å"cannibals that each other eat† and monstrous forms of men â€Å"whose heads grow beneath their shoulders.† (76-77)    There is no shortage of imagery in the play; this is for certain. Critic Caroline Spurgeon in â€Å"Shakespeare’s Imagery and What it Tells Us† sorts through the plethora of imagery in the play:    The main image in Othello is that of animals in action, preying upon one another, mischievous, lascivious, cruel or suffering, and through these, the general sense of pain and unpleasantness is much increased and kept constantly before us. More than half the animal images in the play are Iago’s, and all these are contemptuous or repellent: a plague of flies, a qua... ...ore Evans. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974.    Kernan, Alvin. â€Å"Othello: and Introduction.† Shakespeare: The Tragedies. Ed. Alfred Harbage. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964.    Mack, Maynard. Everybody’s Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.    Muir, Kenneth. Introduction. William Shakespeare: Othello. New York: Penguin Books, 1968.    Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos.    Spurgeon, Caroline. â€Å"Shakespeare’s Imagery and What it Tells Us.† Shakespearean Tragedy. Ed. D. F. Bratchell. New York: Routledge, 1990.    Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1957.      

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Observation of Equity

One of the many roles of a teacher is to demonstrate sensitivity and equitable treatment towards the diversity in their classroom. In my field experience classroom, I had the opportunity to observe different strategies and techniques used to meet the diverse needs of an ESE (Exceptional Student Education) classroom at Howard A. Doolin Middle School. Mrs. Alcala and her 6th grade EBD (Emotionally Behaviorally Disabled) Math class consist of 7 students, whom are currently learning about Fractions, Decimals, and Percents. Mrs. Alcala implemented a lesson plan that would help her students understand and strengthen their ability to use equivalent forms of Fractions, Decimals, and Percents to solve problems. The lesson began with a warm-up on basic mathematical operations. She gave the students five minutes to try and complete the warm-up, and then asked students to come up to the smart board to solve the problems. After the warm-up, as a class, they went over the vocabulary words for the lesson such as fractions, decimals, and percents. Mrs. Alcala then began teaching the lesson and doing examples projecting them on the smart board. Throughout the lesson the students took turns going up to the smart board to practice examples. Some students were able to solve the problems on their own and some required prompting from the teacher. After the examples, Mrs. Alcala played a ten minute video on the smart board showing the students step by step on how to solve problems involving fractions, decimals, and perce nts. Next, the students were split into two groups of two and one group of three. She passed out manipulatives for the students to do practice problems, and were given fifteen minutes to work as a group. Lastly, Mrs. Alcala took the last five minutes of class to go over examples of each of the concepts she had presented. As the observer I feel that the teacher was extremely sensitive to the diverse needs of the students in her classroom. She was very aware of all the students in the classroom and targeted their specific needs. For example, the teacher used various tools such as the smart board, video, and manipulatives to address not only the different learning styles but the levels as well. During the group work the higher level students were grouped with the lower level students to give them more assistance. Additionally, the classroom was structured in a way that was conducive to learning but motivating in the same way with the use of manipulatives, video, and technology. The students responded well to the video and manipulatives, and enjoyed being able to use the smart board to solve problems. The teacher used cueing before transitioning from activity to activity. This allowed students to know ahead of time what they were doing next. While students were working individually as well as in groups, the teacher walked around the classroom asking the students if they needed any assistance. If she noticed the students were having difficulty she made sure to work one on one with the student. Overall, I felt that the teacher was very respectful towards her students. Occasionally, one specific student would blurt out an inappropriate comment and the teacher would address the misbehavior. From my observation, I can gather that addressing diversity in the classroom takes lots of work, planning, and continuous learning in the profession. Highly effective teachers have high academic expectations for all students. The classroom use of modeling, scaffolding, providing guided practice, frequent monitoring and adjustment of instruction all work together to proactively prevent discipline problems that might occur due to lack of understanding and disengagement. Creating a classroom management system that is sensitive to diversity is a mind set that continually takes into consideration the backgrounds, culture, needs, and strengths that all children bring to the table of learning.

Friday, November 8, 2019

My Experience of Teamwork in a Charity Event Research Paper Example

My Experience of Teamwork in a Charity Event Research Paper Example My Experience of Teamwork in a Charity Event Paper My Experience of Teamwork in a Charity Event Paper In a previous assignment (P2) I did A report on own contributions to a specific team activity relating to health and social care. The activity that took place was comic relief day in school. It was a school fundraising day where many different activities took place to raise money for children in need that are unfortunate and need help in the most basic needs, for example providing water, food and shelter. The charity event was able to raise  £960 to help vulnerable children. The different activities that took place were raffles, sponging teachers, cake sale and clothes sale. My contributions to the activity were Effective communication Selling clothes Collecting money Teamwork can have great success and within the event that I will be discussing which was a fundraising for comic relief all the members within the team where able to influence the success of the activity. The main success of the activity was the mass amount of money we raised which was  £960. This was such an achievement and the whole team was overwhelmed when they realised all our contributions put together allowed us to achieve more than we expected. There are however many barriers that do come in the way of when teams work as a group that can have implications of the success of the activity. But the issues can be overcome through full cooperation and also if I adapted my contributions I could also make a difference and enhance the success of the activity. During the activity there where many changes that I could have made to enhance the success of the activity. When all the individuals in the group put together their contributions they are easily able to show that the activity can be a success. However sometimes the contributions do need to be altered a little to make a further succession. Effective communication In assessing the first contribution in influencing the success of the activity communication is one of the most influential parts in working as part of a team. Effective communication needs to be effective in creating an understanding for everyone within the team. I was able to show effective communication through being clear and making sure I do not create any barriers of communication such as making team members amuse my information. Also understanding the different forms of communication and interpersonal interaction helped me in being able to break any barriers of communication. Being able to flow the communication cycle helped me in having a precise aim and a precise outcome that helped in the communication being clear and effective. This had a great success on the activity as I was able to show that I understood information given to mere and was able to give the right feedback. This also stopped me in mumbling or not getting all the information across during team get together or when interacting with people during the activity. The communication cycle this theory that was found by Charles Berner is an excellent way of showing how a person makes sense of communication in the mind. However in assessing how my communication influenced the activity in a negative way was that I was unable to show full effective communication due to having a lack of eye contact with individuals and also not holding a good posture. Also my first impressions on the team did have an effect on the success of the team and my contributions due to me not being on time on the first team gathering. Following the theory of communication found by Michael Argyle (1925-2002) would have helped me in overcoming these communication barriers. Making a first impression is very important as studies have shown that within the first 2 seconds of meeting a person an individual makes their judgments on how they see them. Michael Argyle stated that information can be conveyed through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behaviour this shows that first impressions are always important in how the team would see me and is also a form of effective communication. Due to me having a shy personality this affected the posture I held when I was participating in the activity. Postures can send a variety of messages. Posture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement for example standing slouched would show that the individual does not care. Posture can also show the openness of an individual standing with arms flowed can stand for a barrier in the way of them being able to communicate effectively. Unfortunately I was holding my hands together and had my shoulders low in other words I was very closed off from all the other team members. The recommendation that could be given in the contribution of providing effective communication to make it success would be to give team members training to understand the ways information is conveyed in the most effective way. Training would allow me to be able to understand the importance in effective communication and how much it can affect the success of the activity. For example if I had better communication skills I may have been able to draw more people in to the stalls and this would have encouraged individuals buying more items that would have raised more money. Also flowing Argyles nonverbal communication would also be another recommendation that would allow me to influence the activity in a positive aspect. Nonverbal communication is the process of sending and receiving messages from another person. These messages can be conveyed through gestures, engagement, posture, and even clothing and hygiene. Nonverbal communication can convey a very different message than a verbal conversation and therefor needing to prefect both forms is a great importance. Effective communication can be very difficult to achieve however once the barriers are overcome and understood in how to overcome them communication can be extremely effective and be able to help the group achieve the most they can. Selling clothes In assessing another one of my contributions to the group was sell clothes that had been donated to the school by the pupils and staff. I had to sell the items for different amounts of money depending on what they were worth. The lowest the pieces went where 50p and the highest was  £5.00. At first I did think it would be difficult and was apprehensive about whether or not people would by the clothes that where collected. However the generosity of people was overwhelming as a majority of people bought a least one item. There were great benefits in selling clothes as I was able to raise  £57.00. another benefit of selling clothes is that it did not only benefit the charity through money but the individuals who bought them also benefited hugely as some of them where less fortunate and having good standard clothes for a maximum of 5.00 helped them hugely. Also the individuals who donated the clothes also said that they felt so happy that they could donate these clothes to the charity and help raise money rather than through them away. Selling clothes also helped me in building my confidence in money and talking to individuals. However in another assessment of selling clothes there were also negative issues that did affect the amount of clothes that where purchased. Even though  £57.00 is a lot, more could have been achieved. The clothing sold where not varied and therefor this did cause bad influence on the success of the activity. Also due to the school being multi-cultural there were issues that there was not a variety of cultural clothes that did lead to a form of discrimination. Also the way that I had placed the clothes around the stall did not show any presentation which also may have deterred individual’s way from the stall. In assessing another issue that was create through the conflict of the clothes selling was the conflict between student and staff as the pupils wanted to go around to all the activities but there was no time left. Another bad point is that some of the clothes were not clean and therefor this could have also been a health and safety hazards. This led to some team members feel secluded due to not having there say. At first we were able to show that they were able to get together and decide with the clothes that would be sold however as the activity went on some individual began to feel a lot more distant with the team and this did cause problems. This is a similar issue stated by Bruce Tuckman (1975) who created the theory of stages of group development. Tuckman believed that groups go through 4 different stages that allow the group to be fully formed. However the Tuckmans theory allows the group to see that after the barriers and the problems they can come together and preform in the task. Linking this with my contribution of selling the clothes it is clear that once the group came together and overcame the issues for example not having a variety of clothing or having them too expensive or to cheap would have a positive influence on the success of the activity. The recommendation that I would have on my own contributions is that I would have tried and putting different clothing in my clothes stall that consisted of different cultural clothing. For example a changshan, qipao which are Chinese clothes or langa/paawada Indian clothing. This would have benefited in promoting anti -discrimination and also may have given me a better chance in raising more money with having a variety of clothing that would appeal to all cultures. Clothing can be a very nice way to get individuals to see and experience wearing different clothing. Collecting money Another one of my contributions to the activity was to collect the money that was needed to be given in by every child that wore their own clothes. I went to every class room from year 1 to year 6 and made sure that all the pupils wearing their own clothes did pay a minimum of  £1.00. This task was not difficult at all as the money was already placed in an envelope and the resister was ticked if they had paid and a cross if they had not. In assessing this contribution I was able to make sure that every person who wore their own clothes did bring in  £1.00. Also having this contribution helped me in being able to support the staff in being organised. Another benefit of collecting the money is that it made sure the younger children in the school did not lose the money so I started this contribution at the start of the day. In another assessment of this contribution is that some people within the team did not feel trustworthy on me and believed that I could take the money. The reason behind this was because individuals felt that they did not know me and therefor how could they trust me with their money. Therefor I should have been with another person to create more trust with the pupils and also this would reassure them that I would not take the money. However once the money was collected I was astonished with the amount of money collected just due to the students wearing their own clothes. This showed great commitment level we were all able to succeed as we worked hard in committing to the team and being reliable. When all the money was collected I felt so enthusiastic about how much it would help children in need and due to being part of the team I felt that I had a part to playing in being able to gain that amount of money. The humanistic approach shows the way that I felt. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow came up with the humanistic theory (1934) that shows that a healthy mental attitude is dependent on taking personal responsibility, recognising the existence of free will, and striving towards personal growth and fulfilment. Feeling fulfilled is a human instinctive. The recommendation that will fit nicely with this contribution would be planning. If I planned how to collect the money and get another member of the group to help me in collecting the money I would have had better success with this contribution. Planning would allow me to set out the priorities and make sure that I as fully organised. Planning is fundamental during an activity and I should have planned how to collect the money that would have allowed me to reduce the risk of some students feeling unease about giving their money to me. Also getting resources such as a locked charity box would have helped me in breaking the barriers of me steeling the money and also making sure that none of the money was lost. Another recommendation made for my own contributions in being reliable I would in the future try to show my reliability. As some members of the group did not relay on me as much due to feeling that I was not available because I never told them that I could do certain tasks. Also having the right posture and communicating in the right tone would also have a profound effect on the success of the activity due to breaking down any barriers that I would feel. Remembering to go through the stages in all the theories mentioned above would help in reaching self-actualisation which is the overall outcome of achieving the goal of the activity. Overall assessing my contributions to the team there clear understands that there are positive and negative influences on the activity. When working as a team I have learnt that to achieve the success of the teamwork and the goals there are some process seen in the theories such as the Tuckman’s theory or Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are fundamental to be able to achieve the activity to the full potential. This activity was a great event that allowed our team to grow in teamwork and be able to raise a huge sum of money for children in need. The recommendation mentioned are there to be done in the future when I will come across a teamwork effort again. Making targets for the future such as the recommendations allow me to understand in the parts of the activity that I lacked in and parts that I did success in so in future events I am more capable in achieving the task or the event.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Essay about Sat Prep Biology

Essay about Sat Prep Biology Essay about Sat Prep: Biology THE EARTH IS HOME TO MILLIONS OF DIF- ferent kinds of organisms, from slime molds to sheep, blue whales to naked mole rats. Yet the diversity of size and structure evident in all of these organisms emerges from one fundamental building block: the cell. A cell is a small, membrane-bound compartment capable of performing all the basic functions of life. Since all living organisms, from the simplest to the most complex, are composed of cells, understanding how cells work is integral to understanding larger life processes- not to mention that the cell and its structure are common topics tested by the SAT II Biology. Most cells are too small to be observed with the naked eye. For this reason, even the existence of cells escaped notice until scientists first learned to harness the magnifying power of lenses in the second half of the seventeenth century. At that time a Dutch clothing dealer named Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) fashioned extraordinarily accurate single-lens microscopes. Gazing into the lens of these microscopes, he discovered single-celled organisms, which he called â€Å"animalcules† and which, today, we call bacteria and protists. Englishman Robert Hooke (1635–1703) expanded on Leeuwenhoek’s observations with the newly developed compound microscope, which uses two or more aligned lenses to increase magnification while reducing blurring. When Hooke turned the microscope on a piece of cork, he noticed that the tiny, boxlike compartments of the wood resembled the cells of a monastery. The term â€Å"cell† was born. Cell Theory Emerges As microscope technology improved, scientists were able to study cells in ever-greater detail. Hooke had no way to tell if cells were living things, but later researchers who could see the nucleus and the swirling motion of the cytoplasm were convinced that cells were indeed alive. By 1839, enough evidence had accumulated for German biologists Matthias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann to proclaim that cells are â€Å"the elementary particles of organisms.† But many researchers still did not believe that cells arose from other cells until 1855, when famous German pathologist Rudolph Virchow pronounced, â€Å"All cells come from cells.† Nearly 200 years after the discovery of cells, the observations of Virchow, Schleiden, and Schwann established the cell theory: All living things are made of cells. All cells arise from preexisting cells. These two tenets made clear that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. Cell Size Cells could not be studied until the microscope was developed because they are very small. This fact raises two questions: why are cells so small, and why are living things made up of millions of tiny cells? Cells are small because their surface area and volume must be balanced. In order

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Jean Jacques Rousseau Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Jean Jacques Rousseau - Essay Example This consent of the public is critically important for welfare of a society because this consent is directly related to a low rate of crime, violence, and chaos. In order to avoid drastic consequences and to preserve the supremacy of the state over the individuals, many philosophers made great contributions to raising awareness about the social contract. This very riveting concept picked momentum due to monumental works introduced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This essay is primarily based on scrutinizing the highly memorable book written by Rousseau in 1762 which is called â€Å"The Social Contract† (TSC). Following discussion will include a comprehensive analysis of this concept which was rigorously popularized by Rousseau in his book. The essay will try to explore what exactly Rousseau means by the term â€Å"Social contract† and what is the nature of its relationship with politics. Rousseau was well-aware of the value added by civil freedom to virtuous performance in life, so he indefinitely stressed on replacing personal freedom with civil freedom. He suggested that civil undertakings or obligations without a social contract are bound to be considered tyrannical (Rousseau 2004, p. 195). But, a social contract motivates the entire community to compel a defiant person to abide by the general will. Rousseau was of the view that this sort of community behaviour adds immense strength to mind and character. It was never his intention to push people into slavery because in TSC, he does not urge his audience to completely sacrifice their physical freedom. Rather, he stresses that the social order is in fact a way of preserving natural freedom. Rousseau is highly conscious of the fact that excess of everything is bad. There is an extent to which physical freedom should be sacrificed in order to be admitted into a civil society and become a full and

Friday, November 1, 2019

A selected annotated bibliography on Edgar Dega's Singer in Green Research Paper

A selected annotated bibliography on Edgar Dega's Singer in Green - Research Paper Example Degas illuminates his subjects from below. Shckenkel also argues that Degas has depicted his artistic knowledge using coarse hatchings that suggests the existing backdrop behind the singer herself. According to this author, Degas had a deep meaning behind this style of art. He says that the subject matter of the Artist mainly represented the modern approach. He also states that Degas had a great interest in the portrayal of romance as a major theme of his work of art. His intended message of this image is also facilitated or backed up by his claim that Degas had absorbed her artistic tradition outside people’s influences and later reinterpreted them in various innovative and inventive ways. He created and came up with a lot of information from a single work of art. From the art, it is evident, according to the author that Degas did an experiment with various techniques, thus breaking up the existing surface textures with hatching. He also contrasted the dry pastel with a wet o ne. Degas used watercolors and gouache in the softening of the contours of the figure. Degas, in this concept, is seen as an experienced artist in the use of colors to decorate hi artworks. He uses vivid yellow, orange, and turquoise, which area all features of saturated hues and complementary colors with which other several artists in his circle began to experience during the mid-1880s. The posture of the picture shows that Degas used the modern artistic styles. It is actually the same as the current postures taken by most live performing artists. Reff, Theodore. The Pictures within Degas’s Pictures. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2004. Print. Theodore affirms that Degas applied Venatian art in the creation of the picture. His painting styles with the use of several colors are an indication of the use or application of the mentioned art that was popular during the mid-1860s. He says that the appearance of the picture was because of various works of other artists such a s Tintoretto, Giorgione, and Veronose. Like other works of Degas such as Finding of Moses, Theodore asserts that most of the art styles used in the picture, were that of Tissot who wrote to him, â€Å"L’Assomtion du Titien m’a laisse froid-le Tintoret de Saint- Marc piquant une tete m’a bien†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Theodore goes ahead to explain the history of Degas artistic knowledge that he used in the making or compilation of the picture. He says that the knowledge on the use of colors in the decoration of the picture came from Venatian first, before it; Tissot got it and later shared it with Tissot. He says that, through this, Degas managed to create the picture that was remarkably varied in styles and subjects. The skills he gained through these early artists also helped him come up with juxtaposition in photos. He asserts his beliefs in the existing relevance of modern art. To verify the issue of modernity, Theodore talks of the realism of European paintings and th e artificiality of the Japanese prints. The curving of the hand in the picture, the paintings, the textures and the posture, are all original works of other artists during the renaissance era that was adopted by Degas during the creation of the artworks. Reff, Theodore. Degas: A master among Masters. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2001. Print. In this article, Theodore still discusses the styles that Degas used in the picture. He talks of many aspects of the pictures, in terms of its composition and making styles. She refers to one of the known and popular statements that Degas made