Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Wine Yeast Essay I. Introduction Wines have been one of the favorite beverages in the world. Many Europeans nowadays prefer wine to water as a daily beverage like their ancestors many centuries ago, despite of its bad effects in the health when consumed excessively. Different varieties of the grapes and strains of yeast produce different type of wine. Wines are alcoholic beverage that is usually made from grapes and other fermented juice like apples and berries. The fermentation takes place in the district origin, according to local tradition and practice. Only a relatively small area of the world is Ã¢â¬Å"wine producing. Ã¢â¬ This is because the grapes will only provide juice of the quality necessary for conversion into a drinkable wine where there must be enough sun to ripen the grape and the winter must be moderate, yet sufficient cool. Wines, which are widely known to be a delicious beverage, are also known for its significant uses. II. Body A. Definition of Wine Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice and other fruits, such as apples and berries. The English word Ã¢â¬Å"wineÃ¢â¬ comes from the Proto-Germanic Ã¢â¬Å"*winam,Ã¢â¬ an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, Ã¢â¬Å"wineÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"grapewine,Ã¢â¬ itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. Although other fruits can be fermented, the resultant Ã¢â¬Å"winesÃ¢â¬ are normally named after the fruits from it produce, like apple wine or elderberry wine, and are generically known as fruit or country wine. Others are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine, such as barley wine and rice wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term Ã¢â¬Å"wineÃ¢â¬ is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than production process. The commercial use of the English word Ã¢â¬Å"wine,Ã¢â¬ and its equivalent in other language, is protected by the law in many jurisdictions. B. History of Wines Archeological evidences suggest that the earliest known production of wine took place from sites in Georgia and Armenia from as early as 8000 Ã¢â¬â 6000 BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grape Vitis vinifera. Dr. Patrick McGovern and his colleagues analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars through an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006, and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgina, where also wine residues were discovered on the inner surfaces of 8000-year-old-ramic storage jars in Shulavari, Georgina. In his book Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture,Ã¢â¬ McGovern proposes modern-day Georgia and Armenia as the likely sites of the domestication of the Eurasian wine grape some 8000 years ago. Winemaking spread south out there with wines being produced in northwest Iran and Haiji Firuz Tepe by 5400 BC. A little more than 4,000 years later, Near Eastern wine culture had evolved to the point where amphoras found in the palace of Amenhotep III in western Thebes noted vintage, quality, appellation, and even the purpose or occasion for the blend. The very oldest known evidence suggesting wine production in Europe and second oldest in the world comes from archeological sites in Greece also contain remnants of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine which they required it for the Mass. In places like Germany, beer was banned and considered pagan and barbaric while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of conversion. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. And old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining while from bastard Ã¢â¬â bad or tainted bastardo wine. Viticulture foundation the Romans laid in the land that today are world renowned wine regions is one of the lasting legacies of the ancient Roman Empire. Areas with Roman garrison towns, like Bordeaux, Trier, and Colchester, the Romans planted vineyards to supply local needs and limit the cost of long distance trading. In India, viticulture has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus valley civilization where grapevines are believed to have been introduced to Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines in the late 4th century BC is the writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condems the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his courts frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. Wine became a part of recorded history in Egypt, which plays an important role in ancient ceremonial life. Traces of wine were also found in China, dating back from the second and first millennium. A 2003 report by archeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixes with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolothic sites in Jianhu, Henan contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the regions, such as hawthorn, can not be ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grapes in China, rather from vitis vinifera, which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. C. Processes in Winemaking. Winemaking or vinification, is the production of wine, starting with selection of the grapes or other produce and ending with bottling the finished wine. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may also be made from other fruit or non-toxic plant material. Enology is the science of wine and winemaking and the oldest known winemaking operation was discovered in a cave in Armenia, estimated to be 6,100 years old. There are two general categories in winemaking: still wine production (without carbonation) and sparkling wine production (with carbonation). Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s South Island near the 45th parallel south, and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, hust north of the 50th parallel north. 1. Choosing and harvesting the grapes Grapes grow on vines. There are many different types of grapes, but the best wine grape is the European vitis vinifera. It is considered optimal because it has the right balance of sugar and acid to create a good fermented wine without the addition of sugar or water. Vitis vinifera includes all varieties of European origin. Weather is a major factor in determining whether a year is going to be a Ã¢â¬Å"good vintageÃ¢â¬ (or Ã¢â¬Å"yearÃ¢â¬ ). In northern hemisphere, grapes are harvested from early September to early November while mid February to early March in the southern hemisphere. In some cool areas in the southern hemisphere, like Tasmania, harvesting extends to May. Grapes are harvested during the cool morning. The wine grape grower plays a game of chance to winemakers yearly. They must decide when exactly they must harvest to be able to produce fine wines. Simplistically, if they knew it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to rain, they would test the Brix (level of sugar) until it was just right, then harvest. If they harvest too soon, they may probably end up getting a wine too low in alcohol content which there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough sugar to convert to alcohol. These wines will be Ã¢â¬Å"thin. Ã¢â¬ And if they delay the harvesting, there may be too sugar which leads to too low acid content. This also affects the taste and the aging possibilities of the wine. Harvesting grapes are done through mechanical or manual. The winemakers typically made the decision to harvest grapes and informed by the Brix, acid (Titratable Acidity as expressed by tartaric acid equivalents) and pH of the grapes. Other considerations include phonological ripeness, berry flavor, tannin development (seed color and taste). Overall disposition of the grapevine and weather forecast are taken into account. 2. Initial processes After the grapes have been picked and transported to the winery, certain preparatory steps must be taken before the actual winemaking can begun. Cleanliness and sanitation are essential for good winemaking, as troublesome bacteria can cause disastrous result. Upon arriving at the winery, grapes are treated with 50-70 ppm of free sulfur dioxide. This process is called sulfating, and inhibits the unwanted and wild yeast species on the grapes. Grapes are crushed to get the juice through Pigeage (stomping on it with feet in a big vat). But the easier and more practical way is to use machine which does the crushing and at the same time, removes the stems. Some grapes may bypass the stemmer/crusher and go directly to the process for whole berry pressing. However, the decision about destemming is different for red and white winemaking. Generally, when making white wine, the fruit is only crushed, the stems are then placed in the press with the berries. The presence of stems in the mix facilities pressing allow the juice to flow past flattened skins. These accumulate at the edge of the press. For red winemaking, stems of the grapes are usually removed before fermentation since the stem has relatively high tannin content; in addition to tannin they can also give the wine a vegetal aroma (due to extraction of 2-methoxyl-3-isopropylpyrazine which has an aroma reminiscent of green bell peppers). On occasion, the winemakers may decide to leave them in if the grapes themselves contain less tannin than desired. This is more acceptable if the stem have ripened and started to turn brown. If increase skin extract is desired, a winemaker might choose to crush the grapes after destemming. Removal of stems first means no stem tannin can be extracted in these cases the grapes pass between two rollers which squeeze the grapes enough to separate the skin and pulp, but not so much as to cause excessive shearing or tearing of the skin tissues. In some cases, notably with Ã¢â¬Å"dalicatedÃ¢â¬ red varietals, all or plant of the grapes might be left uncrushed (called Ã¢â¬Å"whole berryÃ¢â¬ ) to encourage the retention of fruity aromas through partial carbonic maceration. 3. Fermentation Through the process of fermentation, the grape juice is turned into alcohol. Grapes on the vine are covered with yeast, molds and bacteria. By putting grape juice into a container at the right temperature, yeast will turn the sugar in the juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The grape juice will have fermented. Fermentation is carried out in stainless steel vessels. Yeast also gives flavor to the wine. But the yeast that is on the grape skin when it is harvested may not have the desire flavor. Other things on the outside of a grape are not good for the wine like the acetic bacteria on the grapes which can cause the wine to turn into vinegar. The winemaker can eliminate unwanted yeastÃ¢â¬â¢s molds and bacteria, most commonly by using the Ã¢â¬Å"universal disinfectant,Ã¢â¬ sulfur dioxide. Unfortunately, the sulfites which remain in the wine may cause a lot of discomfort to some wine drinkers. Some winemakers prefer not to do this, and purposely create wines that are subject to the vagaries and different flavors of the yeast that pre-exist on the grapes. The winemakers have many different yeast strains to choose from (and can use strains at the different times during the process for better control fermentation). Saccharomyces is the most common wine yeast. This is a good point to stop and mention Ã¢â¬Å"Brett,Ã¢â¬ also known as the Brettanomyces strain of yeast (which can be added or come from wild yeast fermentation). As yeast works, it causes grape juice or Ã¢â¬Å"mustÃ¢â¬ to get hot. But if theres too much heat, the yeast wont work. Cooling coils are necessary to maintain a temperature below 30 degrees Celsius. Placing in small oak barrels is still widely used in fermenting wine, even if it is less modern. Ã¢â¬Å"Barrel fermentation is usually done at a lower temperature in temperature controlled rooms and takes longer, perhaps around 6 weeks. The longer fermentation and use of wood contributes to the flavor (and usually expense) of the wine. The skins and pulp which remain in a red wine vat will rise to and float on top of the juice. This causes problems, so the winemaker will push this cap back down into the juice, usually at least twice a day. If it dries out, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a perfect breeding ground for injurious bacteria. In large vats, pushing the skin and pulp back down into the juice is accomplished by pumping juice from the bottom of the vat over the top of the cap. Eventually the yeast is no longer changing sugar to alcohol though different strains of yeast, which can survive in higher and higher levels of alcohol, can take over and contribute their own flavor to the wine as well as converting a bit more sugar to alcohol. After all this is completed what you have left are the wine, dead yeast cells, known as lees and various other substances. The winemakers may choose to allow a white wine to undergo a second fermentation which occurs due to malic in the grape juice. When malic acid which is due to bacteria in the wine, it is known as Ã¢â¬Å"malo-lactic fermentation,Ã¢â¬ which imparts additional flavor to the wine. A buttery flavor in some whites is due to this process. This process is used for sparkling wines. 4. First racking When the fermentation is completed naturally or stopped by the addition of distilled spirit, first racking is carried out. This involves the wine to stand still until most yeast cells and fine suspended material settle out. Then without disturbing the sediments or the yeast, the wine is filtered. 5. Aging The winery may then keep the wine so that there can be additional clarification and, in some wines, to give it a more complex flavors. Flavor can come from the chemicals that make up the wood and are taken up into the wine. The wine is aged in stainless steel tanks. In some instances, the wine is put into oak barrels where it will continue its development until bottling. It may be barrel aged for several months to several years where no air is allowed to enter the barrels during those periods. Ignoring any additional processing that might be used, winemakers could empty the barrels into bottles and sell the wine. However, during the winery aging, the smaller containers may develop differences and the winemaker will probably blend wine from different barrels to achieve a uniform result. The winemaker may also blend together different grape varieties to achieve desired characteristics. 6. Filtration Filtration in winemaking is used to accomplish two objectives: clarification and microbial stabilization. In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In microbial stabilization, organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage. Stabilization with respect to tartarates may involve chilling of wine than can be crystallized tartarates and these crystals can be removed by filtration. 7. Pasteurization It may be heat pasteurized or cold pasteurized if the wine has an alcoholic content of less than 14% through microporous filters just before bottling. 8. Bottling Different shaped bottles are often use by the winemakers to denote different types of wine. Colored bottles help to reduce damage by light because light assists in oxidation and breakdown of the wine into chemicals, such as mercaptan, which are undesirable. Bottle sizes can also vary. A final dose of sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and prevent unwanted fermentation in the bottle. The wine bottles then are traditionally sealed with a cork, although alternative wine closures such as synthetic corks and screwcaps, which are less subject to cork taint, are becoming increasingly popular. The final step is adding a capsule to the top of the bottle which is then heated for a tight seal. 9. Storing Wine cellars, or wine rooms if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wines. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled and so much be carefully located. Wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age when properly stored. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 Ã °F (13 Ã °C), others 59 Ã °F (15 Ã °C). Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low, usually under 50%, which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wines quality. D. Classifications of Wines 1. Table wines Table wines, also called still or natural wines, are consumed mostly with food, they tend to compliment the meal. It is the largest category. The alcoholic strength may be between 9% and 15%, by volume. The wines may be: Ã¢â¬ ¢Red: being fermented in contact with grape skins from which the wine gets it color. Normally dry wines. Ã¢â¬ ¢White: usually produced from white grapes, but the grape juice is usually fermented away from the skins. Normally dry to very sweet. Ã¢â¬ ¢Rose: made in three ways Ã¢â¬â from black grapes fermented on the skins for up to 48 hours; by mixing red and white wines together; or by pressing grapes so that some color is extracted. It may be dry or semi-sweet. These are called blush wines in the USA when made wholly from grapes. 2. Sparkling wines These are wines that have undergone a second fermentation and thus become effervescent. Semi-sparkling wines are known by the term Ã¢â¬Å"petillant. Ã¢â¬ Sparkling wines have varying degrees of dryness and flavor and contain 10 to 14 percent alcohol. It includes: champagne, sparkling Burgundy, and sparkling Moselle and are available from France, Spain, Italy, and many other country. 3. Fortified wines Fortified wines, such as Sherry, Vermouth, Port, and Madeira, are most commonly drunk before or after meals. It has been strengthened by the addition of alcohol, usually a grape spirit. Fortified wines are also frequently used in cooking. Fortified wines are known within the European Union as a liqueur wines or vins de liqueur. Their alcoholic strength may be between 15% and 22%, by volume. Flavored and fortified wines are called Aromatized wines. 4. Organic wines These wines are known as Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"environmentally friendlyÃ¢â¬ wines, are made from grapes grown without the aid of artificial insecticides, pesticides or fertilizers. The wine itself will not be adulterated in any way, save for minimal amounts of the traditional preservatives, sulphur dioxide, which is controlled at source. 5. Alcohol-free, de-alcoholized and low alcohol wines These wines are made in the normal way and the alcohol is removed by hot treatment Ã¢â¬â distillation Ã¢â¬â which unfortunately removes most of the flavor as well, or, more satisfactory, by a cold filtration process, also known as reverse osmosis. This removes the alcohol by mechanically separating or filtering out the molecules of alcohol through membranes made of cellulose or acetate. To do this, at a later stage, water and a little must are added, thus attempting to preserve much of the flavor of the original wine. The alcohol-free has the maximum content of 0. 05%, de-alcoholized has the maximum of 0. 05%, and the low alcohol has the maximum of 1. 25% alcohol. 6. Vins doux naturales These are sweet wines that have had their fermentation muted by the addition of alcohol in order to retain their natural sweetness. Muting takes place when the alcohol level reaches between 5% and 8%, by volume. They have a final alcohol strength of about 17%, by volume. E. Tasting of Wines Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines are made up chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. The sommelier, as well as having an extensive knowledge of the wine list, should have a good knowledge of the characteristics of the different wines offered. To ensure this, the sommelier must know the correct approach to tasting wine. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that can result from other factors in winemaking. Individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as estors and terpenes that a grape juice and wine can contain. Typical international flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks; chocolate, vanilla, or coffee almost always come from the oak and hot the grape itself. Tasting may be said to be an analysis of wine by senses. It is the appreciation by the senses of the qualities of a wine: Ã¢â¬ ¢Sight: indicating the clarity and color of the wine. Ã¢â¬ ¢Smell: determines the banquet of a wine by means of a vigorous swirling in the glass. Ã¢â¬ ¢Taste: allows detection of the aroma in the mouth. Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as the spoilage aromas such as sweaty, barnyard, band and rotten egg. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water0soluble salts (like limestones). Wine aromas come from volatile compound in the wine that is released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass of serving the wine at room temperature. For red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais, many people prefer them chilled. The taste-character of wine is detected in different parts of the mouth but especially by the tongue: sweetness at the tip, acidity on the upper edges, saltiness at the sides, and bitterness at the back. Dryness and sweetness are immediately obvious, as is acidity, which generally provides liveliness and crispness. Astringency or tannin content, associated with some red wines, will give a dry coating effect especially on the teeth and gums. The combination of smell and taste gives what is often termed Ã¢â¬Å"flavor. Ã¢â¬ This might be for example, the amount of tannin content in the wine, its degrees. of dryness or sweetness, whether it is a light or heavy bodied wine, etc. To appreciate the tasting of wine to the full, the taster must work in the correct environment. That is: Ã¢â¬ ¢No noise to distract the taster Ã¢â¬ ¢Good ventilation to eliminate odor Ã¢â¬ ¢Sufficient light, not artificial, but daylight if possible Ã¢â¬ ¢Temperature of the room at about 20Ã °C (68Ã °F) The glass, that must be the correct shape, is the tool of the taster. A wine glass with a stem and of sufficient capacity should be fairly wide but narrowing at the top. This allows the Ã¢â¬Å"elementsÃ¢â¬ making up the bouquet to become concentrated and thus better assessed. The wine glass should never be filled to more than one-third capacity to allow the taster to swirl the wine around the glass more easily. It goes without saying that the tasting glass should be spotlessly clean. F. Uses of Wines 1. In dishes Wines are popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, for the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Wine is important in cuisines not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Red, white, and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are known as light wines because they are only 14-20% alcohol content, by volume. Aperitif and dessert wines contain 14-20% alcohol, and sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. And fortified wines are frequently used in cooking. 2. In traditions and religions Wines are also used in religious ceremonies in many cultures and wine trade is of historical importance for many regions. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus are usually thought to have uses wine as an entheogen. Wines play an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush, a blessing said before starting the first and second Shabbat or festival meals and Havdallah, a blessing said after the Shabbat or festival are required to say over wine if available. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is also required to drink four cups of wine. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple of Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. It is not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: Ã¢â¬Å"Baruch atah Hashem elokeinu melech haolam, boray pÃ¢â¬â¢rec hagafenÃ¢â¬ (Praised be the Eternal, Ruler of the Universe, who makes the fruit of the vine). In Christianity, wine or grape juice is used in a sacred rite called Eucharist, LordÃ¢â¬â¢s Supper, or Communion, which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper when Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to Ã¢â¬Å"do this in remembrance of me. Ã¢â¬ Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations, which Roman Catholic believing that the bread and the wine are changed into real body and blood of Christ. Wines were used in the rite by all Protestants groups until an alternative arose in 1869. Methodist minister-turned-dentist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of the grape juice. The substitution of grape juice for wine spread quickly over much of the United States in Protestant rites, although the beverage is usually called wine in accordance with scriptural references. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can or should be used in moderation for the Eucharist or as a regular beverage. The use of wine is forbidden under Islam. Iran used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic revolution. G. Health Effects of Wines The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing study. In the USA, a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by 60 Minutes, and other news reports on the French paradox. The French paradox refers to the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France than in the USA despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Epidemiologists suspect that this difference is attributed to the high consumption of wines by the French; however this suspicion is based on limited scientific evidence. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. This means that abstainers and heavy drinkers have an elevated risk, whilst moderate drinkers have a lower risk. Population studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective, though the association is considerably stronger for wine. These studies have found a protective effect from both red wine as well as white wine, though evidence from laboratory studies suggests that red wine may possess superior health benefits including prevention of cancer due to the fact red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine due to the production process. A chemical called resveratrol is thought to be at least partly responsible for red wines health benefits, as it has been shown to exert a range of both cardioprotective as well as chemoprotective mechanisms in animal studies Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection, which includes exposure to yeast during fermentation. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process, it generally contains lower levels of resveratrol. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols, antioxidants, and flavonoids. Red wines from South of France and Sardinia Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins Ã¢â¬â the compounds in grape seeds responsible for making red wine good for the heart. Wines from France and Sardinia have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. Interestingly, wine has traditionally been used to treat wounds in some parts of the world. While evidence from both laboratory studies as well as epidemiological (observational) studies suggest wines cardioprotective effect, no evidence from controlled experiments Ã¢â¬â of which long-term studies are still ongoing Ã¢â¬â currently exists to determine the specific effect of wine or other alcohol on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Moreover, excessive consumption of alcohol including wine can cause some diseases including cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. Sulphites in wine are not a problem for most people, although some people, particularly people with asthma, can experience adverse reactions to them. Although G. M. Pasinetti, S. S. Percival, et al discovered that cabernet sauvignon red wine reduces the risk of Alzheimers Disease, the researchers at Germanys Gottingen University found that wine damages hippocampus more than other alcohols among diagnosed alcoholics. III. Conclusion Wine is defined to be an alcoholic beverage that is made from the fermentation of grape juice or Ã¢â¬Å"mustÃ¢â¬ and other fruits like berries and apples. The word comes from the Proto-Germanic Ã¢â¬Å"winam. Ã¢â¬ The term Ã¢â¬Å"wineÃ¢â¬ is a reference to the higher alcohol content and the commercial use of it and its equivalent in other language is protected by the law in many jurisdictions. Wines have a rich history, dating back around 8000 BC and are thought to have originated in the areas now within the borders of Armenia, Georgia, and Iran. Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in Balkans, and was common in Ancient Greece, Thrace, and Rome. Wine had been also in the recorded history of India, Egypt, and China and had been one of the lasting legacies of the ancient Roman Empire. In winemaking or vinification, wines are produced starting with choosing and harvesting of the grapes where the grapes are selected and harvested through machines or hands, to the initial processes of the grapes and fermentation of wines were the grape juice are turned into alcohol, to the first racking where the wines are allowed to stand still, then the wines will aged in stainless tanks or oak barrels and filtration to accomplish clarification and microbial stabilization. Pasteurization will be followed where wines can be heat or cold pasteurized, then bottling and lastly, wines are stored in wine cellars or wine rooms. Wines are classified as the following: Table wines, Sparkling wines, Fortified wines, Organic wines, Alcohol-free, de-alcoholized and low alcohol wines, and Vins doux naturales. Wines are classified through the way they are fermented, their alcohol content, and their uses. Wine tasting is the examination and evaluation of wines through the senses of sight, smell, and taste. Wine tasting should be done in a room that is silent, well-ventilated, well-lighted, and that has a temperature of about 20Ã °C or 68Ã °F. Wines are used in dishes especially in European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, and it is not only used as a beverage but also a flavor agent and a cooking tool. Also, wines are used in religions and traditions; it is used in Christian Eucharist ceremonies, the Jewish Kiddush, Islam, and Protestants. In health, wines causes coronary heart disease which abstainers and heavy drinkers have an elevated risk while moderate have a lower risk. It is also found that other alcoholic beverage may be cardioprotective through the association that is considerably stronger that wine. Red wine suggest through the evidence.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Has the Creation of Nunavut Come too Quickly? The North of Canada may invoke thoughts of polar bears, penguins, and Eskimos, however this region has a history of exploitation. Since the 1940's, the Inuit people (Eskimo is considered a derogatory term by locals) have been forced to assimilate to Canadian laws and language. Prior to the arrival of the Canadian officials and their economic and law systems and infrastructures, the Inuit lived in small groups off the tundra. Their economic system was one of trade and they spoke Inuktitut, which was only an oral language until about fifty years ago. Yet, this way of life was altered drastically with the increasing presence of the Canadian government in the region. In the early 1900's the government of Canada began to take notice of the increasingly heavy flow of foreign ships in the arctic waters. It was not the presence of the ships the Canadian government were concerned with, but rather the revenue they were losing (Matthiasson, 36). To overcome this problem, Canada loosely asserted its sovereignty over the region more for economic reasons than anything else. Even then, the Inuit people continued to live the way they always had in spite of the Canadian laws they were supposedly constrained by now. Forty years later, Canada's sovereignty in the Northwest Territories was threatened again, but this time politically by the United States in 1946. Canadian officials were informed that the United States was planning to construct several weather stations in the High Arctic Islands. These stations were intended to collect climat ic information as well as serve as a defense measure against possible Soviet attack (Marcus, 54). Nervous about the loss of the territory, the Canad... ...d job creation to the infant government. Without economic sustainability, Nunavut will continue to be one of the poorest regions in Canada. If this is the case in future years, the language nor the traditions have much chance of surviving. Works Cited Brown, DeNeen L. "Culture Corrosion in Canada's North; Forced Into the Modern World, Indigenous Inuit Struggle to Cope." The Washington Post 16 July 2001, page A01. Marcus, Alan Rudolph. Relocating Eden: The Image and Politics of Inuit Exile in the Canadian Arctic. Hanover, Dartmouth College Press, 1995, page 54. Matthiasson, John S. Living on the Land: Change Among the Inuit of Baffin Island. Ontario, Broadview Press, 1992, pages 35-37. Nunavut: The Story of Canada's Inuit People. Mapleleafweb Online. 2 March 2002. < www.mapleleafweb.com/features/nunavut/government.html>.
Monday, January 13, 2020
After breakfast Matt went online to find two stores, neither in Fel Ã¢â¬Ës Church, that had the amount of clay Mrs. Flowers said she'd need and that said they'd deliver. But after that there was the matter of driving away from the boardinghouse and by the last lonely remains of where the Old Wood had been. He drove by the little thicket where Shinichi often came like a demonic Pied Piper with the possessed children shuffling behind him Ã¢â¬â the place where Sheriff Mossberg had gone after them and hadn't come out. Where, later, protected by magical wards on Post-it Notes, he and Tyrone Alpert had pul ed out a bare, chewed femur. Today, he figured the only way to get past the thicket was to work his wheezing junk car up by stages, and it was actual y going over sixty when he flew by the thicket, even managing to hit the turn perfectly. No trees fel on him, no swarms of foot-long bugs. He whispered Ã¢â¬Å"Whoa,Ã¢â¬ in relief and headed for home. He dreaded that Ã¢â¬â but simply driving through Fel Ã¢â¬Ës Church was so horrible it glued his tongue to the top of his mouth. It looked Ã¢â¬â this pretty, innocent little town where he had grown up Ã¢â¬â as if it were one of those neighborhoods you saw on TV or on the Internet that had been bombed, or something. And whether it was bombs or disasterous fires, one house in four was simply rubble. A few were half-rubble, with police tape enclosing them, which meant that whatever had happened had happened early enough for the police to care Ã¢â¬â or dare. Around the burned-out bits the vegetation flourished strangely: a decorative bush from one house grown so as to be halfway across a neighbor's grass. Vines dipping from one tree to another, to another, as if this were some ancient jungle. His home was right in the middle of a long block of houses ful of kids Ã¢â¬â and in summer, when grandchildren inevitably came to visit, there were even more kids. Matt just hoped that that part of summer vacation was doneÃ¢â¬ ¦but would Shinichi and Misao let the youngsters go home? Matt had no idea. And, if they went home, would they keep spreading the disease in their own hometowns? Where did it stop? Driving down his block, though, Matt saw nothing hideous. There were kids playing out on the front lawns, or the sidewalks, crouching over marbles, hanging out in the trees. There was no single overt thing that he could put his finger on There was no single overt thing that he could put his finger on that was weird. He was Stilluneasy. But he'd reached his house now, the one with a grand old oak tree shading the porch, so he had to get out. He coasted to a stop just under the tree and parked by the sidewalk. He grabbed a large laundry bag from the backseat. He'd been accumulating dirty clothes for a couple of weeks at the boardinghouse and it hadn't seemed fair to ask Mrs. Flowers to wash them. As he got out of the car, pul ing the bag out with him, he was just in time to hear the birdsong stop. For a moment after it did, he wondered what was wrong. He knew that something was missing, cut short. It made the air heavier. It even seemed to change the smel of the grass. Then he realized. Every bird, including the raucous crows that lived in the oak trees, had gone silent. All at once. Matt felt a twisting in his bel y as he looked up and around. There were two kids in the oak tree right beside his car. His mind was Stillstubbornly trying to hang on to: Children. Playing. Okay. His body was smarter. His hand was already in his pocket, pul ing out a pad of Post-it Notes: the flimsy bits of paper that usual y stopped evil magic cold. Matt hoped Meredith would remember to ask Isobel's mother for more amulets. He was running low, andÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦and there were two kids playing in the old oak tree. Except they weren't. They were staring at him. One boy was hanging upside down by his knees and the other was gobbling somethingÃ¢â¬ ¦out of a garbage bag. The hanging kid was staring at him with strangely acute eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Have you ever wondered what it's like to be dead?Ã¢â¬ he asked. And now the head of the gobbling boy came up, thick bright red al around his mouth. Bright red Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â blood. AndÃ¢â¬ ¦whatever was in the garbage bag was moving. Kicking. Thrashing weakly. Trying to get away. A wave of nausea washed over Matt. Acid hit his throat. He was going to puke. The gobbling kid was staring at him with stony black-as-a-pit eyes. The hanging kid was smiling. Then, as if stirred by a hot breath of wind, Matt felt the fine hairs on the back of his neck stand up. It wasn't just the birds that had gone quiet. Everything had. No child's voice was raised in argument or song or speech. He whirled around and saw why. They were staring at him. Every single kid on the block was silently watching him. Then, with a chil ing precision, as he turned back to look at the boys in the tree, al the others came toward him. Except they weren't walking. They were creeping. Lizard-fashion. That's why some of them had seemed to be playing with marbles on the sidewalk. They were al moving in the same way, bel ies close to the ground, elbows up, hands like forepaws, knees splaying to the side. Now he could taste bile. He looked the other way down the street and found another group creeping. Grinning unnatural grins. It was as if someone was pul ing their cheeks from behind them, pul ing them hard, so that their grins almost broke their faces in half. Matt noticed something else. Suddenly they'd stopped, and while he stared at them, they stayed Still. Perfectly Still, staring back at him. But when he looked away, he saw the creeping figures out of the corner of his eye. He didn't have enough Post-it Notes for al of them. You can't run away from this. It sounded like an outside voice in his head. Telepathy. But maybe that was because Matt's head had turned into a roiling red cloud, floating upward. Fortunately, his body heard it and suddenly he was up on the back of his car, and had grabbed the hanging kid. For a moment he had a helpless impulse to let go of the boy. The kid Stillstared at him but with eerie, uncanny eyes that were half rol ed back in his head. Instead of dropping him, Matt slapped a Post-It Note on the boy's forehead, swinging him at the same time to sit on the back of the car. A pause and then wailing. The kid must be fourteen at least, but about thirty seconds after the Ban Against Evil (pocket-size) was smacked on him he was sobbing real kid sobs. As one, the crawling kids let out a hiss. It was like a giant steam engine. Hsssssssssssssssssssssss. They began to breathe in and out very fast, as if working up to some new state. Their creeping slowed to a crawl. But they were breathing so hard Matt could see their sides hol ow and fil . As Matt turned to look at one group of them, they froze, except for the unnatural breathing. But he could feel the ones behind him getting closer. By now Matt's heart was pounding in his ears. He could fight a group of them Ã¢â¬â but not with a group on his back. Some of them looked only ten or eleven. Some looked almost his age. Some were girls, for God's sake. Matt remembered what possessed girls had done the last time he'd met them and felt violent revulsion. But he knew that looking up at the gobbling kid was going to make him sicker. He could hear smacking, chewing sounds Ã¢â¬â and he could hear a thin little whistle of helpless pain and weak struggling against the bag. He whirled quickly again, to keep off the other side of crawlers, and then made himself look up. With a quiet crackle, the garbage bag fel away when he grabbed it but the kid held on to what was in Ã¢â¬â Oh my God. He's eating a baby! A baby! A Ã¢â¬â He yanked the kid out of the tree and his hand automatical y slapped a Post-It onto the boy's back. And then Ã¢â¬â then, thank God, he saw the fur. It wasn't a baby. It was too smal to be a baby, even a newborn. But it was eaten. The kid raised his bloody face to Matt's, and Matt saw that it was Cole Reece, Cole who was only thirteen and lived right next door. Matt hadn't even recognized him before. Cole's mouth was wide open in horror now, and his eyes were bulging out of his head with terror and sorrow, and tears and snot were streaming down his face. Ã¢â¬Å"He made me eat Toby,Ã¢â¬ he started in a whisper that became a scream. Ã¢â¬Å"He made me eat my guinea pig! He made me Ã¢â¬â why why why did he do that? I ATE TOBY!Ã¢â¬ He threw up al over Matt's shoes. Blood-red vomit. Merciful death for the animal. Quick, Matt thought. But this was the hardest thing he'd ever tried to do. How to do it Ã¢â¬â a hard stomp on the creature's head? He couldn't. He had to try something else first. Matt peeled off a Post-It Note and put it, trying not to look, on the fur. And just like that it was over. The guinea pig went slack. The spel had undone whatever had been keeping it alive up to this point. There was blood and puke on Matt's hands, but he made himself turn to Cole. Cole had his eyes shut tight and little choking sounds came from him. Something in Matt snapped. Ã¢â¬Å"You want some of this?Ã¢â¬ he shouted, holding out the Post-it pad as if it were the revolver he'd left with Mrs. Flowers. He whirled again, shouting, Ã¢â¬Å"You want some? How about you? You, Josh?Ã¢â¬ He was recognizing faces now. Ã¢â¬Å"You, Madison? How 'bout you, Bryn? Bring it on! You all bring it on! BRING IT Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Something touched his shoulder. He spun, Post-it Note ready. Then he stopped short and relief bubbled up in him like Evian water at some fancy restaurant. He was staring right into the face of Dr. Alpert, Fel Ã¢â¬Ës Church's own country doctor. She had her SUV parked beside his car, in the middle of the street. Behind her, protecting her back, was Tyrone, who was going to be next year's quarterback at Robert E. Lee High. His sister, a sophomore-to-be, was trying to get out of the SUV too, but she stopped when Tyrone saw her. Ã¢â¬Å"Jayneela!Ã¢â¬ he roared in a voice only the Tyre-minator could produce. Ã¢â¬Å"You get back in and buckle up! You know what Mom said! You do it now!Ã¢â¬ Matt found himself clutching at Dr. Alpert's chocolate brown hands. He knew she was a good woman, and a good caretaker, who had adopted her daughter's young children when their divorced mother had died of cancer. Maybe she would help him, too. He began babbling. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, God, I've gotta get my mom out. My mom lives here alone. And I have to get her away from here.Ã¢â¬ He knew he was sweating. He hoped he wasn't crying. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, Matt,Ã¢â¬ the doctor said in her husky voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm getting my own family out this afternoon. We're going to stay with relatives in West Virginia. She's welcome to come.Ã¢â¬ It couldn't be this easy. Matt knew he had tears in his eyes now. He refused to blink, though, and let them come down. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know what to say Ã¢â¬â but if you would Ã¢â¬â you're an adult, you see. She won't listen to me. She will listen to you. This whole block is infected. This kid Cole Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"He couldn't go on. But Dr. Alpert saw it al in a flash Ã¢â¬â the animal, the boy with blood on his teeth and his mouth, Stillretching. Dr. Alpert didn't react. She just had Jayneela throw her a packet of Wet Wipes from the SUV and held the heaving kid with one hand, while vigorously scrubbing his face clean. Ã¢â¬Å"Go home,Ã¢â¬ she told him sternly. Ã¢â¬Å"You have to let the infected ones go,Ã¢â¬ she said to Matt, with a terrible look in her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Cruel as it seems, they only pass it on to the few who're Stillwell.Ã¢â¬ Matt started to tel her about the effectiveness of the Post-it Note amulets, but she was already cal ing, Ã¢â¬Å"Tyrone! Come over here and you boys bury this poor animal. Then you be ready to move Mrs. Honeycutt's things into the van. Jayneela, you do what your brother says. I'm going in for a little talk with Mrs. Honeycutt right now.Ã¢â¬ She didn't raise her voice much. She didn't need to. The Tyre-minator was obeying, backing up to Matt, watching the last of the creeping children that Matt's explosion hadn't scattered. He's quick, Matt realized. Quicker than me. It's like a game. As long as you watch them they can't move. They took turns being the watcher and handling the shovel. The earth here was hard as rock, heavy with weeds. But somehow they got a hole dug and the work helped them mental y. They buried Toby, and Matt walked around like some foot-dragging monster, trying to get the vomit off his shoes in the grass. Suddenly beside them there was the noise of a door banging open and Matt ran, ran to his mother, who was trying to heft a huge suitcase, much too heavy for her, through the door. Matt took it from her and felt himself encompassed in her hug even though she had to stand on tip-toes to do it. Ã¢â¬Å"Matt, I can't just leave you Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"He'l be one of those to get the town out of this mess,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Alpert said, overriding her. Ã¢â¬Å"He'l clean it up. Now we've got to get out so we don't drag him down. Matt, just so you know, I heard that the McCul oughs are getting out too. Mr. and Mrs. Sulez don't seem to be going yet, and neither do the Gilbert-Maxwells.Ã¢â¬ She said the last two words with a distinct emphasis. The Gilbert-Maxwells were Elena's aunt Judith, her husband Robert MaxWell, and Elena's little sister, Margaret. There was no real reason to mention them. But Matt knew why Dr. Alpert had. She remembered seeing Elena when this whole mess had started. Despite Elena's purification of the woods where Dr. Alpert had been standing, the doctor remembered. Ã¢â¬Å"I'l tel Ã¢â¬â Meredith,Ã¢â¬ Matt said, and looking her in the eyes, he nodded a little, as if to say, I'l tel Elena, too. Ã¢â¬Å"Anything else to carry?Ã¢â¬ Tyrone asked. He was encumbered by a canary birdcage, with the little bird frantical y beating its wings inside, and a smal er suitcase. Ã¢â¬Å"No, but how can I thank you?Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Honeycutt said. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks later Ã¢â¬â now, everybody in,Ã¢â¬ said Dr. Alpert. Ã¢â¬Å"We are taking off.Ã¢â¬ Matt hugged his mother and gave her a little push toward the SUV, which had already swal owed the birdcage and smal suitcase. Ã¢â¬Å"Good-bye!Ã¢â¬ everyone was yel ing. Tyrone stuck his head out of the window to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Cal me whenever! I want to help!Ã¢â¬ And then they were gone. Matt could hardly believe it was over; it had happened so fast. He ran inside the open door of his house and got his other pair of running shoes, just in case Mrs. Flowers couldn't fix the smel of the ones he was wearing. When he burst out of the house again he had to blink. Instead of the white SUV there was a different white car parked beside his. He looked around the block. No children. None at al . And the birdsong had come back. There were two men in the car. One was white and one was black and they both were around the age to be concerned fathers. Anyway they had him cut off, the way their car was parked. He had no choice but to go up to them. As soon as he did they both got out of the car, watching him as if he was as dangerous as a kitsune. The instant they did that, Matt knew he'd made a mistake. Ã¢â¬Å"You're Matthew Jeffrey Honeycutt?Ã¢â¬ Matt had no choice but to nod. Ã¢â¬Å"Say yes or no, please.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Matt could see inside the white car now. It was a stealth police car, one of those with lights inside, al ready to be fixed outside if the officers wanted to let you in on the secret. Ã¢â¬Å"Matthew Jeffrey Honeycutt, you are under arrest for assault and battery upon Caroline Beula Forbes. You have the right to remain silent. If you give up this right, anything you say can and wil be used against you in a court of law Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Didn't you see those kids?Ã¢â¬ Matt was shouting. Ã¢â¬Å"You had to have seen one or two of them! Didn't that mean anything to you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Lean over and put your hands on the front of the car.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's going to destroy the whole town! You're helping it!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you understand these rights Ã¢â¬â ?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you understand what is going on in Fel Ã¢â¬Ës Church?Ã¢â¬ There was a pause this time. And then, in perfectly even tones, one of the two said, Ã¢â¬Å"We're from Ridgemont.Ã¢â¬
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Presentation of information, no matter how technically sophisticated, is not enough; learners must interact with content to construct their own meanings and integrate new knowledge into the dense web of neural connections that is mind and memory. We cannot Google our way through life (although I do it a lot) and a student will always need some foundational knowledge. But what counts more is a person s ability for lifelong learning, to think, research, find information, analyze, synthesize, understand and critically evaluate for themselves; to be able to apply research and solve problems; to collaborate and communicate. This is particularly important for students and employers competing in a global economy. Students need to learn to doÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a result of this, teachers more and more use older student tutors and adult tutors. One obvious place that the impact of social constructivist theories can be identified is in the design and organization of the classrooms. Today teachers favor the potential of peer to peer interactions and the greater classroom community in learning. Numerous classrooms in the U.S. have assigned spaces for small group work, in addition to arrangements for whole class discussions. Elementary classrooms generally incorporate small group reading areas, mathematics and science centers or stations. I believe that the reading and math areas can be set up by abilities grouping when needed, depending on the disability of the student(s) and that students may be moved into mix-ability groups as they progress in a constructivist classroom. V. Personal Reflection In reviewing my learning style, study skills, and philosophical methodology of learning, I found discrepancies rendering these profiles not close to being an accurate assessment tool and therefore invalid. Some of the questions that were asked are subject to interpretation. I had to research a few terms to make sure that I was comprehending what was being asked and in reality, it still was not clear to me and interpreted the question the way I understood it which may have been completely wrong therefore producing inaccurate results. The